Research Group Geoinformation


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... to the Cartography Group

1996 - 2000

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2000 back

Wolff v., A. (2000): Ego-reorientation on mental representations of rooms. The International Conference on Spatial Cognition: Scientific Research and Applications, Rome, Italy, Cognitive Processing, International Quarterly of Cognitive Science, Pabst Science.
(download not available)


Winter, S. (2000): "Location Similarity of Regions." ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 55(3): 189-200.
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Winter, S., Ed. (2000): Geographical Domain and Geographical Information Systems. GeoInfo Series. Vienna, Institute for Geoinformation.
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Winter, S. and S. Nittel (2000): "Abstraction and Standardisation in the Spatial Domain." International Journal of Geographical Information Science.
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Winter, S. (2000): Grid Coverage Features and Their Relations, OpenGIS Consortium.
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Winter, S. (2000): Topological Operations Transparent for Users. Third AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science, Helsinki.
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Winter, S. and A. U. Frank (2000): "Topology in Raster and Vector Representation." GeoInformatica 4(1): 35-65.
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Winter, S. (2000): "Uncertain Topological Relations between Imprecise Regions." International Journal of Geographical Information Science 14(5): 411-430.
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Wenzl, P. and S. Winter (2000): Geomarketing on a Pay-per-Use Basis. AGIT 2000, Salzburg, Wichmann Verlag.
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van der Vlugt, M. (2000): GIPSIE, promoting Interoperability and OpenGIS in Europe. GIM International. 14: 29-31.
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Timpf, S. (2000): Ontologies of Wayfinding: a traveler's perspective (abstract). GIScience 2000, Savannah, Georgia, USA.
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Timpf, S. and W. Kuhn (2000): Functional Specification of Multilevel Highway Navigation. Functional and Logic Programming, Benicassim, Spain, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia.
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Staudinger, M. (2000): A Cost Oriented Approach to Geodetic Network Optimisation. Vienna, Inst. f. Geoinformation.
(download not available)

Sedlak, M. and S. Winter (2000): Einbindung des Branchenverzeichnisses in Autonavigationssysteme. GIS in Verkehr und Transport. B. Zagel. Heidelberg, Herbert Wichmann Verlag: 176-187.
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Raubal, M. (2000): PANEL-GI: Pan European Link for Geographical Information. AGEO Aktuell. Innsbruck: 1.
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Raubal, M. (2000): Human wayfinding in unfamiliar buildings: a simulation with cognizing agents. International Conference on Spatial Cognition: Scientific Research and Applications (ICSC 2000), Cognitive Processing - special issue 2000, Rome, Italy, Pabst Science Publishers.
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Raubal, M. and A. Frank (2000): Multimodal Communication for Wayfinding: Airports as a Case Study. 4th Swedish Symposium on Multimodal Communication (SSoMC), Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm University / KTH.
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Raubal, M. (2000): Ontology and epistemology for agent-based wayfinding simulation. EuroConference on Ontology and Epistemology for Spatial Data Standards, 22-27 September 2000, La Londe-les-Maures, France, Institute for Geoinformation, TU Vienna, Austria.
(download not available)


Ragia, L. and S. Winter (2000): "Contributions to a quality description of areal objects in spatial data sets." ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 55(3): 201-213.
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Pontikakis, E., A. Frank, et al. (2000): Information support for public transport. Vienna, Institute for Geoinformation, TU Vienna.
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Nittel, S. and S. Winter (2000): Formalisation of Spatial Standards. GIScience 2000, Savannah, GA, UCGIS.
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Navratil, G. (2000): ReviGIS Report: Data Combination to extract Parcel Boundaries. Paris, Université de Provence.
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Krek, A. (2000): Versioning of a Geoinformation Product. GIScience 2000, Savannah, Georgia, US, University of California Regents.
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Krek, A. (2000): Efficient Pricing of Geo-Marketing Internet Services: European vs. American Approach. The Spatial Information Society: Shaping the Future, 6th EC - GIS Workshop, Lyon, France.
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Krek, A. and A. U. Frank (2000): "The Economic Value of Geo Information." Geo-Informations-Systeme - Journal for Spatial Information and Decision Making 13(3): 10-12.
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Hochmair, H. (2000): Comparing cognitive maps for wayfinding tasks in the real world and the web (abstract). International Conference of Spatial Cognition, Rome, Italy, Pabst.
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Hochmair, H. (2000): 'Least Angle' Heuristic: Consequences of errors during navigation (abstract). GIScience, Savannah, Georgia, USA, University of California Regents.
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Hochmair, H. (2000): User Interface Design und Programmierung eines interaktiven Klanggenerators. Institut für Wiener Klangstil, Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Wien: 75.
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Hochmair, H. (2000): Adapting One's Mental Model: An Essential Process for Successful Navigation in an Environment (extended abstract). GISRUK 2000, York, Great Britain.
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Frank, A., M. Raubal, et al. (2000): The PANEL-GI Compendium. A Guide to GI and GIS. GISIG Bulletin: 8-9.
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Frank, A., M. Raubal, et al., Eds. (2000): PANEL-GI Compendium - A guide to GI and GIS. Genova, Italy, Geographical Information Systems International Group (GISIG) & European Commission.
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Frank, A. U., M. Raubal, et al., Eds. (2000): Kompendium Panel -GI - Przewodnik po GI i GIS. Chorzów, Poland, GISPOL - Stowarzyszenie Uzytkowników Krajowego Systemu Informacji o Terenie.
(download not available)


Frank, A. U. (2000): Preisdifferenzierung für Geoinformationsprodukte. AGEO Aktuell.
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Frank, A. and M. Raubal (2000): Formal Specifications of Image Schemata for Interoperability in Geographic Information Systems. Spatial Cognition - Foundations and Applications (Selected Papers from Mind III, Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society of Ireland, Dublin, 1998). S. Ó Nualláin. Amsterdam/Philadelphia, John Benjamins B. V. 26: 213-232.
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The formal specification of spatial objects and spatial relations is at the core of geographic data exchange and interoperability for GIS. It is necessary that the representation of such objects and relations comes close to how people use them in their everyday lives, i.e., that these specifications are built upon elements of human spatial cognition. Image schemata have been suggested as highly abstract and structured mental patterns to capture spatial and similar physical as well as metaphorical relations between objects in the experiential world. We assume that image-schematic details for large-scale (geographic) space are potentially different from image-schematic details for small-scale (table-top) space. This paper reviews methods for the formal description of spatial relations and integrates them in a categorical view. We give examples of image-schematic specifications for large-scale (PATH) and small-scale (CONTAINER, SURFACE) space. Such specifications should provide a foundation for further research on formalizing elements of human spatial cognition for interoperability in GIS.

Frank, A. U., M. Raubal, et al., Eds. (2000): Panel-GI Compendium - A guide to GI and GIS. Geo-Info Series.
(download not available)


Frank, A. U., M. Raubal, et al. (2000): The Panel-GI Compendium - A Guide to GI and GIS. Bulletin of Geographical Information Systems International Group: 8-10.
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Frank, A. U., S. Nittel, et al. (2000): Abstract Modeling with Functional Languages. Vienna, Department of Geoinformation, TU Vienna: 5.
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Frank, A. U. and W. Kuhn (2000): "Langages de spécification pour SIG ouverts." Revue international de géomatique 9(February 2000): 135-152.
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Frank, A. U. (2000): "Geographic Information Science: New methods and technology." Journal of Geographical Systems, Special Issue: Spatial Analysis and GIS 2(1): 99-105.
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Frank, A. U. (2000): Spatial Communication with Maps: Defining the Correctness of Maps Using a Multi-Agent Simulation. Spatial Cognition II (International Workshop on Maps and Diagrammatical Representations of the Environment, Hamburg, August 1999). C. Freksa, W. Brauer, C. Habel and K. F. Wender. Berlin Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag. 1849: 80-99.
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Bittner, S. (2000): Levels of reality in a cadastre. EuroConference on Ontology and Epistemology for Spatial Data Standards, La Londe-les-Maures, France, Institute for Geoinformation.
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Bittner, S., A. v. Wolff, et al. (2000): The Structure of Reality in a Cadaster. 23rd International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg am Wechsel.
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1999 back

Winter, S. (1999): Topological Operators for the Grid Coverage, OpenGIS Consortium.
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Winter, S. (1999): Topological Analysis with Approximate Location. Second AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science, Rome.
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Winter, S. and T. Bittner (1999): Hierarchical topological reasoning with vague regions. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spatial Data Quality, Hong Kong, Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
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Winter, S., M. van der Vlugt, et al. (1999): Open GIS und Interoperabilität in Europa: Das GIPSIE Projekt. Offene Umweltinformationsysteme - Chancen und Möglichkeiten der OpenGIS-Entwicklung im Umweltbereich. M. Bock, K. Greve and W. Kuhn. Münster, BRD, Institut für Geoinformatik, Universität Münster. 7: 73-79.
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Winter, S., M. van der Vlugt, et al. (1999): OpenGIS and Interoperability in Europe. GIS Ostrava '99, Ostrava, Czech Republic (25.-27.1.1999), Areal VSB-TU Ostrava.
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Winter, S. (1999): Topological Relations in Hierarchical Partitions. Spatial Information Theory (Int. Conference COSIT'99, Stade, Germany). C. Freksa and D. M. Mark. Berlin, Springer-Verlag. 1661: 141-155.
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Winter, S. (1999): Distances for Uncertain Topological Relations. Geographic Information Research - Transatlantic Perspectives. M. Craglia and H. Onsrud. London, Taylor & Francis: 449-459.
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Winter, S. and A. U. Frank (1999): Functional Extensions of a Raster Representation for Topological Relations. Interoperating Geographic Information Systems (Proceedings of Interop'99, Zurich). A. Vckovski, K. E. Brassel and H.-J. Schek. Berlin, Springer-Verlag. 1580: 293-304.
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Winter, S. (1999): GIPSIE - A European Contribution to Open Infrastructures. 4th EC GIS Workshop 1998, Budapest, Hungary, European Commission DG III.
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Winter, S. and A. U. Frank (1999): "Produkt: Geoinformation." Geo-Informations-Systeme 12(4): 29-30.
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van der Vlugt, M. (1999): OpenGIS and Interoperability in Europe: the GIPSIE project. GIS '99, London, UK (28-30 September, 1999), AGI/Miller Freeman.
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van der Vlugt, M. (1999): GIPSIE: Lessons learned from promoting interoperablilty in Europe. SIRC '99, Dunedin, New Zealand.
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Twaroch, C. (1999): Organisation des Katasters; Ziele, Grundsätze und Praxis. Institute for Geoinformation and Land Survey. Vienna, Technical University Vienna: 158.


Timpf, S. (1999): Abstraction, Levels of Detail, and Hierarchies in Map Series. Spatial Information Theory - Cognitive and Computational Foundations of Geographic Information Science, International Conference COSIT '99, Stade, Germany (August 25-29, 1999), Springer.
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Staudinger, M. (1999): A Cost Orientated Approach to Geodetic Network Optimisation. Vienna, Technical University.
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Staudinger, M. (1999): A Cost Orientated Approach to Geodetic Network Optimisation. Inst. of Geoinformation. Vienna, Technical University.
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Staudinger, M. (1999): An OpenGIS-orientated Data Model for an Austrian GIS-T. URISA 1999 Annual Conference, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
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Staudinger, M. and A. Car (1999): Ein konzeptionelles Datenmodell für ein Verkehrsplanungs-GIS. GIS in Verkehr und Transport, Salzburg.
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Dieser Beitrag berichtet über den Aufbau eines konzeptionellen Modells für ein in der Verkehrsplanung eingesetztes GIS (GIS-VP). Angeregt durch Beispiele aus Projekten in Wien und Newcastle haben wir Ideen und theoretische Grundlagen zusammengestellt, welche sich beim Modellieren eines solchen anspruchsvollen komplexen Raumes als nützlich gezeigt haben.

Raubal, M. and M. Worboys (1999): A Formal Model of the Process of Wayfinding in Built Environments. Spatial Information Theory - Cognitive and Computational Foundations of Geographic Information Science, International Conference COSIT '99, Stade, Germany, Springer-Verlag.
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Müller, R. and A. U. Frank (1999): Interoperability and Workflow: Multi-Agency Databases. 6th Int. Conference on Distributed Multimedia Systems (DMS99), University of Aizu, Japan.
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Medak, D. (1999): Lifestyles - A Paradigm for the Description of Spatiotemporal Databases. Department of Geoinformation. Vienna, Technical University Vienna.
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Kuhn, W. and A. U. Frank (1999): The Use of Functional Programming in the Specification and Testing Process. Interoperating Geographic Information Systems. M. F. Goodchild, M. Egenhofer, R. Fegeas and C. Kottman. Boston, Kluwer. 495.
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Krek, A. and A. U. Frank (1999): "Pricing Geographic Data." GIM International 13(9): 31-33.
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Krek, A. and A. U. Frank (1999): Optimization of Quality of Geoinformation Products. 11th Annual Colloquium of the Spatial Information Research Centre, SIRC'99, Dunedin, New Zealand (13-15 December, 1999), Dept. of Information Science, University of Otago.
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Krek, A. and A. U. Frank (1999): Price Determination for Geographic Data. 21st Urban Data Management Symposium, UDMS'99, Venice, Italy (April 21-23, 1999).
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Frank, A., M. Raubal, et al., Eds. (1999): Multi-Agency Databases to Manage Geographic Information. GeoInfo Series. Vienna, Department of Geoinformation, Technical University Vienna.
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Frank, A. U. and D. Medak (1999): Formal models of a spatiotemporal database. DATASEM'99 - 19th Annual Conference on the Current Trends in Databases and Information Systems, Brno, Czech Republic (24-26 October, 1999), Dept. of Computer Science, Czech Technical University.
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Frank, A. U. (1999): One step up the abstraction ladder: Combining algebras - From functional pieces to a whole. Spatial Information Theory - A Theoretical Basis for GIS (International Conference COSIT'99, Stade, Germany). C. Freksa and D. M. Mark. Berlin, Springer-Verlag. 1661: 95-107.
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Frank, A. and M. Raubal (1999): "Formal specifications of image schemata - a step towards interoperability in geographic information systems." Spatial Cognition and Computation 1(1): 67-101.
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The formal specification of spatial objects and spatial relations is at the core of geographic data exchange and interoperability for GIS. It is necessary that the representation of such objects and relations comes close to how people use them in their everyday lives, i.e., that these specifications are built upon elements of human spatial cognition. Image schemata have been suggested as highly abstract and structured mental patterns to capture spatial and similar physical as well as metaphorical relations between objects in the experiential world. We assume that image-schematic details for large-scale (geographic) space are potentially different from image-schematic details for small-scale (table-top) space. This paper reviews methods for the formal description of spatial relations, integrates them in a categorical view, and applies the methods arrived at to formally specify image schemata for large-scale (LOCATION, PATH, REGION, and BOUNDARY) as well as small-scale (CONTAINER, SURFACE, and LINK) space. These specifications should provide a foundation for further research on formalizing elements of human spatial cognition for interoperability in GIS.

Bittner, T. (1999): Rough Location. Vienna, Austria, Technical University.
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Bittner, T. (1999): Rough Location. Institute of Geoinformation. Vienna, Austria, Technical University: 196.
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Bittner, T. (1999): On ontology and epistemology of rough location. Spatial Information Theory - Cognitive and Computational Foundations of Geographic Information Science (Int. Conference COSIT'99, Stade, Germany). C. Freksa and D. M. Mark. Berlin, Springer-Verlag. 1661: 433-448.
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Bittner, T. and S. Winter (1999): On Ontology in Image Analysis. Integrated Spatial Databases - International Workshop ISD'99 (Portland, ME, June 1999). P. Agouris and A. Stefanidis. Berlin, Springer-Verlag. 1737.
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Bittner, T. and A. U. Frank (1999): "On the Design of Formal Theories of Geographic Space." Geographical Systems 1(3): 237-275.
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Axmann, A., M. Staudinger, et al. (1999): Das österreichische Bundesverkehrsinformationssystem (BUVIS). GIS in Verkehr und Transport, Salzburg.
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1998 back


Winter, S. (1998): Bridging Vector and Raster Representation in GIS. Advances in Geographic Information Systems, ACM-GIS'98, Washington, D.C. (November 6-7, 1998),, The Association for Computing Machinery Press.
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Winter, S. (1998): Location-Based Similarity Measures of Regions. ISPRS Commission IV Symposium "GIS Between Visions and Applications", Stuttgart, Germany (7-10 September, 1998), International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
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In this paper the focus is on similarity of a pair of discrete spatial objects, where only their location is considered. Location refers to the interrelation between position, shape and size of the objects. -- Excluded from comparison are thematic attributes, relations in scenes, and matching. Furthermore, stochastic signals
(as e.g. image regions) or fuzzy regions are not considered, but not excluded.

With the only precondition that a measure should be symmetric, normed, and free of dimension, area ratios are build and investigated. The list of ratios is complete, and only some of the ratios fulfill the precondition. These ratios are useful candidates for similarity measures, and their behaviour and semantical interpretations are discussed. Different measures refer to different reference systems; here, the different measures characterize different properties or interrelations between the position, the shape, and the size of two regions. None of the measures is a measure of overall similarity. Consequently, at least two of the listed measures are necessary. The two measures have to be complementary in the way, that both together characterize common and distinct features of the regions.

Twaroch, C. (1998): Organisation des Katadters. Vienna: 19.
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Twaroch, F., M. Heisler, et al. (1998): Zur Verfuegbarkeit von Geodaten im Internet. AGIT'98, Salzburg, Wichmann Verlag.
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Timpf, S. (1998): Map Cube Model - a model for multi-scale data. 8th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling (SDH'98), Vancouver, Canada, International Geographical Union.
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Timpf, S. (1998): Hierarchical structures in map series. Department of Geoinformation. Vienna, Technical University Vienna: 124.
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Smith, B. (1998): The Basic Tools of Formal Ontology. Formal Ontology in Information Systems. N. Guarino, IOS Press: 19-28.
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Raubal, M. (1998): Structuring Wayfinding Tasks with Image Schemata, TU Wien.


Raubal, M. and M. Egenhofer (1998): "Comparing the complexity of wayfinding tasks in built environments." Environment & Planning B 25(6): 895-913.
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Wayfinding is a basic activity that people do throughout their entire lives as they navigate from one place to another. Many theories of spatial cognition have been developed to account for this behavior; however, most of the computational models focus on knowledge representation (e.g., cognitive maps) and do not consider the process of how people structure wayfinding tasks and space. This paper presents a computational method to compare the complexity of wayfinding tasks in built environments. As a measure for such complexity we use a simple wayfinding model that consists of two critical elements: choices and clues. We show that elements of people's perception and cognition can be used to determine the elements of the wayfinding model and, therefore, to compare the complexity of wayfinding tasks in built environments. A case study of wayfinding in airports demonstrates the applicability of the method. The integration of this method into the computational design process of built environments will help to identify architectural problems with regard to wayfinding prior to construction.

Ragia, L. and S. Winter (1998): Contributions to a Quality Description of Areal Objects in Spatial Data Sets. ISPRS Commission IV Symposium "GIS Between Visions and Applications", Stuttgart, Germany (7-10 September, 1998), International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
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Radovan, D. and A. Krek (1998): Slovene Geoinformation Infrastructure (SGII) (in Slovene and partialy in English language). Ljubljana, Slovenia, Institute for Geodesy and Photogrammetry: 261.
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Pontikakis-Coyne, E. (1998): Town of Vienna (Virginia), Geographic Information System Demonstration Project Phase II. Development of Utilities GIS. Annandale, Virginia, USA, Northern Virginia Planning District Commission.
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Navratil, G. (1998): An object-oriented approach to a model of a cadaster. Department of Geoinformation. Vienna, Technical University of Vienna.
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Jordan, T., M. Raubal, et al. (1998): An Affordance-Based Model of Place in GIS. 8th Int. Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, SDH'98, Vancouver, Canada (July 11-15, 1998), International Geographic Union.
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Hölbling, W., W. Kuhn, et al. (1998): "Finite-Resolution Simplicial Complexes." GeoInformatica 2(3): 281-298.
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Simplicial Complexes are used to model topology in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Line intersection is an essential operation to update them. We introduce a finite-resolution line intersection method, called Zero Order Intersection, and apply it to simplicial complexes.
Any reliable implementation of a line intersection algorithm has to address the limitations of a discrete computational environment. If handled improperly, finite representation can cause drifting lines and similar effects in otherwise topologically consistent data. The Zero Order Intersection method is designed to avoid such inconsistencies. Its application to simplicial complexes results in the Discrete Simplicial Data Model which guarantees consistency and reliability of topological queries within a GIS.

Hochmair, H. (1998): Konvergenzmessungen in der NÖT - Darstellungsformen und der Bezug zur Tunnelmechanik. Institut für Geodäsie und Geophysik. Vienna, University of Technology.
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Frank, A. U. and A. Annoni (1998): OpenGIS in the European GI-market. ASITA'98, Bolzano, Italy (24-27 November, 1998).
(download not available)


Frank, A. and M. Raubal (1998): Formal Specifications of Image Schemata for Interoperability in Geographic Information Systems. Mind III: Spatial Cognition, Dublin.
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The formal specification of spatial objects and spatial relations is at the core of geographic data exchange and interoperability for GIS. It is necessary that the representation of such objects and relations comes close to how people use them in their everyday lives, i.e., that these specifications are built upon elements of human spatial cognition. Image schemata have been suggested as highly abstract and structured mental patterns to capture spatial and similar physical as well as metaphorical relations between objects in the experiential world. We assume that image-schematic details for large-scale (geographic) space are potentially different from image-schematic details for small-scale (table-top) space. This paper reviews methods for the formal description of spatial relations and integrates them in a categorical view. We give examples of image-schematic specifications for large-scale (PATH) and small-scale (CONTAINER, SURFACE) space. Such specifications should provide a foundation for further research on formalizing elements of human spatial cognition for interoperability in GIS.

Frank, A. U. (1998): GIS for Politics. GIS Planet '98, Lisbon, Portugal (9 - 11 Sept. 1998), IMERSIV.
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Frank, A. and M. Raubal (1998): Specifications for Interoperability: Formalizing Image Schemata for Geographic Space. 8th Int. Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, SDH'98, Vancouver, Canada (July 11-15, 1998), International Geographic Union.
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The formal specification of spatial objects and spatial relations is at the core of geographic data exchange and interoperability for GIS. Spatial image schemata have been suggested as highly abstract, structured schemata to capture spatial and similar physical as well as metaphorical relations between objects in the experiential world. We assume that image schemata for geographic (large-scale) space are potentially different from image schemata for table-top space. Formal definitions of four image schemata (LOCATION, PATH, REGION, and BOUNDARY) are given.

Frank, A. U. (1998): Metamodels for Data Quality Description. Data Quality in Geographic Information - From Error to Uncertainty. R. Jeansoulin and M. Goodchild. Paris, Editions Hermès: 15-29.
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Frank, A. U. (1998): Specifications for Interoperability: Formalizing Spatial Relations 'In', 'Auf' and 'An' and the Corresponding Image Schemata 'Container', 'Surface' and 'Link'. 1. Agile-Conference, ITC, Enschede, The Netherlands.
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Frank, A. U. and W. Kuhn (1998): A Specification Language for Interoperable GIS. Interoperating Geographic Information Systems. M. F. Goodchild, M. Egenhofer, R. Fegeas and C. Kottman. Norwell, MA, Kluwer.
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Frank, A. U. (1998): Formal Models for Cognition - Taxonomy of Spatial Location Description and Frames of Reference. Spatial Cognition - An Interdisciplinary Approach to Representation and Processing Spatial Knowledge. C. Freksa, C. Habel and K. F. Wender. Berlin, Springer-Verlag. 1404: 293-312.
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Frank, A. U. (1998): Different types of 'times' in GIS. Spatial and Temporal Reasoning in GIS. M. J. Egenhofer and R. G. Golledge. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 40-62.
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Dieberger, A. and A. U. Frank (1998): "A City Metaphor to Support Navigation in Complex Information Spaces." Journal of Visual Languages and Computing 9: 597-622.
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Car, A. (1998): "Geomedia 1.0." GIS Europe(January 1998).
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Campari, I. (1998): Analyzing Temporal Factors in Urban Morphology Development. Spatial and Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Information Systems. M. J. Egenhofer and R. G. Golledge. New York, Oxford University Press: 220-237.
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Bittner, S. (1998): Die Modellierung eines Grundbuchsystems im Situationskalkül. Vienna, Institute for Geoinformation.
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Bittner, T. and A. U. Frank (1998): On Representing Geometries of Geographic Space. 8th Int. Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, SDH'98, Vancouver, Canada (July 11-15, 1998), International Geographic Union.
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1997 back

Wolff v., A. (1997): Der Einfluß von Raumachsen auf das egozentrische Umraummodell. KogWis97, Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena.
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Wolff v., A. (1997): On the flexible use of mental axes in egocentric spatial mental models. Workshop on Spatial Cognition, Rome, University of Rome.
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Wolff v., A. (1997): Referenzachsen in egozentrisch organisierten, räumlichen mentalen Modellen. TEAP, Berlin.
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Wolff v., A. (1997): Zur Funktion von Referenzachsen bei Targetlokation vs. Reorientierung in mentalen Modellen von Umräumen. Frühjahrstreffen der Graduiertenkollegs "Kognitionswissenschaft" Freiburg, Hamburg, Saarbrücken, Hamburg, Graduiertenkolleg Kognitionswissenschaft Hamburg.
(download not available)


Twaroch, C. (1997): Rechtlicher Schutz für Karten, Pläne und Geo-Datenbanken. Geodätische Woche Obergurgl. Obergurgl: 10.
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Timpf, S. and A. U. Frank (1997): Using hierarchical spatial data structures for hierarchical spatial reasoning. Spatial Information Theory - A Theoretical Basis for GIS (Int. Conference COSIT'97). S. C. Hirtle and A. U. Frank. Berlin, Springer-Verlag. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 1329: 69-83.
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Timpf, S. and A. U. Frank (1997): Metadaten - multimedial ? Angewandte Geographische Informationsverarbeitung IX (AGIT), Salzburg, Institut fuer Geographie, Universitaet Salzburg.
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Timpf, S. and A. U. Frank (1997): "Metadaten - vom Datenfriedhof zur multimedialen Datenbank." Nachrichten aus dem Karten- und Vermessungswesen Reihe I(117): 115 - 123.
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Timpf, S. and A. U. Frank (1997): Exploring the life of screen objects. Auto-Carto 13, Seattle, Wash., ACSM.
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Timpf, S. and T. Devogele (1997): New tools for multiple representations. ICC'97, Stockholm, Editor: Lars Ottoson.
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Timpf, S., M. J. Egenhofer, et al. (1997): "Ein konzeptionelles Modell fuer Navigation in Fernstrassennetzen." ZfV 122(2): 55-77.
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Timpf, S. (1997): Cartographic objects in a multi-scale data structure. Geographic Information Research: Bridging the Atlantic. M. Craglia and H. Couclelis. London, Taylor & Francis. 1: 224-234.
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Staudinger, M. and B. Stieger (1997): "Weiterbildung als Erfolgschance und Qualitätsfaktor in der Geoinformationsbranche." VGI 85(1/97): 21-25.
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Zusammenfassung
Ausgehend von der Feststellung der FIG-Arbeitsgruppe 2A, daß nur eine dauernde berufliche Weiterentwicklung die Antwort auf die sich immer stärker ändernden Marktbedingungen sein kann, werden wir zunächst die Sachlage in der österreichischen Vermessungsbranche untersuchen und darstellen. Dabei kristallisieren sich zur Sicherung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit zwei Faktoren heraus: die Bereitschaft zur Übernahme neuer Arbeitsgebiete und die Neuorientierung zu einer perfekten Leistungsqualität bei der Dienstleistungserbringung. Der Begriff „Qualität" wird dabei einen neuen Ansatzpunkt erhalten. Die ausschlaggebende Rolle in diesem Zusammenhang spielt aber eine fachliche und methodische Wissenserweiterung, um die entscheidende Qualifikation zu erreichen und zu bewahren. Für eine erfolgreiche Weiterbildung ist zu beachten, daß sie ganzheitlich ist und drei Arten von Kompetenzen beinhaltet: Fachkompetenz, soziale Kompetenz und Eigenkompetenz. Nur so wird sich für die im Geoinformationswesen tätigen Unternehmer durch Aus- und Weiterbildungsmaßnahmen auch ein Nutzen einstellen.
Abstract
Working Group 2A of the International Federation of Surveyors has stressed the importance of a Continuing Professional Development (CDP) as a respond to the quickly changing market conditions. In this article we want to analyse the situation of Austrian surveyors and the geoinformation section. We think that two elements are necessary to ensure and increase one’s competitiveness: enthusiasm for new fields of activities and the establishment of a perfect quality management-system. Moreover, a professional and competent knowledge development is decisive for one’s success. A systematic improvement and broadening of knowledge has to pay attention to different qualifications: a professional qualification, a social qualification, and the qualification for an individual self development. Only if you have all of these three qualifications in mind, continuing education and training programs will be of measurable benefits to the enterprise or the individual.

Schlaisich, I. (1997): Aufbau eines GIS über den Wiener Zentralfriedhof. AGIT97, Salzburg, F.Dollinger und J. Strobl.
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Dieser Artikel berichtet über den Aufbau eines Geographischen Informationssystems für den Wiener Zentralfriedhof und dessen Implementierung als Demonstrationsmodell. Der Zentralfriedhof ist eine kulturelle Stätte in Wien mit Ehrengräbern berühmter Menschen und wird von Touristen gerne besucht. Mit diesem Beispiel soll gezeigt werden, daß GIS auch für raumbezogene multi-media Projekte mit einer breiten Nutzung durch Nichtfachleute möglich ist. Die Arbeit wurde im Zuge eines zweimonatigen Projektes durchgeführt und mit Intergraph-Werkzeugen realisiert.

Schachinger, H. (1997): Optimierung von geodätischen Netzen. AGIT97, Salzburg, F.Dollinger und J. Strobl.
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In vielen Fällen werden GIS Daten mittels terrestrischer Vermessung erhoben. Damit die Daten gleichbleibende Qualität aufweisen, ist es notwendig Vermessungseinsätze sorgfältig zu planen. Dabei beschränkt man sich meist auf die Planung der Polygonnetze, von denen aus die weitere Vermessung erfolgen wird. In dem Artikel wird eine Methode vorgeschlagen, mit der die Beobachtungspläne für die Vermessung automatisch zu optimieren sind. Dabei wird auf die Methode des Simulated Annealing zurückgegriffen. Als Kostenfunktion wird dabei eine Funktion der Anzahl der Beobachtungen verwendet. Die Methode ist sehr rechenintensiv, da sie eine stochastische Simulation ist.

Rugg, R., M. Egenhofer, et al. (1997): "Formalizing Behavior of Geographic Feature Types." Geographical Systems 4(2): 159-180.
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Raubal, M., M. Egenhofer, et al. (1997): Structuring Space with Image Schemata: Wayfinding in Airports as a Case Study. Spatial Information Theory—A Theoretical Basis for GIS, International Conference COSIT '97, Laurel Highlands, PA. S. Hirtle and A. Frank. Berlin, Springer. 1329: 85-102.
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Wayfinding is a basic activity people do throughout their entire lives as they navigate from one place to another. In order to create different spaces in such a way that they facilitate people’s wayfinding it is necessary to integrate principles of human spatial cognition into the design process. This paper presents a methodology to structure space based on experiental patterns, called image schemata. It integrates cognitive and engineering aspects in three steps: (1) interviewing people about their spatial experiences as they perform a wayfinding task in the application space, (2) extracting the image schemata from these interviews and formulating a sequence of subtasks, and (3) structuring the application space (i.e., the wayfinding task) with the extracted image schemata. We use wayfinding in airports as a case study to demonstrate the methodology. Our observations show that most often image schemata are correlated with other image schemata in the form of image-schematic blocks and rarely occur in isolation. Such image-schematic blocks serve as a knowledge-representation scheme for wayfinding tasks.

Raubal, M. (1997): "Geoinformation im Internet: Die Homepage der Abteilung Geoinformation an der TU Wien." Zeitschrift fuer Vermessungswesen 122(2): 86-90.
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Aufgrund der rasanten Entwicklung der Informationsdarstellung am WWW (World Wide Web) und des rapiden Anstiegs an Internet-Benützern ergibt sich auch für den Bereich Geoinformation die Chance einer umfangreichen Präsentation. Dies soll am Beispiel der Homepage der Abteilung Geoinformation, Institut für Landesvermessung und Ingenieurgeodäsie, Technische Universität Wien, demonstriert werden.

Raubal, M. (1997): Structuring Wayfinding Tasks with Image Schemata. Department of Spatial Information Science and Engineering. Orono, ME, U.S.A., University of Maine: 107.
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Raubal, M., M. Egenhofer, et al. (1997): Structuring Space with Image Schemata: Wayfinding in Airports as a Case Study. Spatial Information Theory - A Theoretical Basis for GIS (International Conference COSIT'97), Berlin-Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag.
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Raubal, M., B. Gaupmann, et al. (1997): "Teaching Raster GIS Operations with Spreadsheets." Journal of Geography 96(5): 258-263.
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Many universities are introducing courses to teach students the principles of geographic information systems (GIS). In addition to lectures, exercises with commercial GIS software are offered to show basic operations. Although students learn to execute such operations, the software may hide their internal structure and logic. We propose using a spreadsheet program as a teaching tool for raster operations such as filter and overlay. Spreadsheets offer a practical way to demonstrate and experiment with raster operations, because the raster structure is captured in the form of rows and columns. With this tool, students are able to perform and visualize operations as well as to see how the data are processed by the algorithms. Our approach is new in that we concentrate on the algorithms of operations. We make explicit which raster functions are actually evaluated when performing a particular operation. We conclude that there are good reasons for using spreadsheets in comparison to traditional GIS software when teaching raster operations. These are demonstration in class, simple user interface, familiarity to students, low cost, flexibility of changing cell values, ease of changing parameters, easy programming environment, and the possibility to look behind the scenes of operations by viewing the code.

Raubal, M. (1997): "Geoinformation am Internet: Die Homepage der Abteilung Geoinformation an der TU Wien." ZfV 122(2): 86-90.
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Aufgrund der rasanten Entwicklung der Informationsdarstellung am WWW (World Wide Web) und des rapiden Anstiegs an Internet-Benützern ergibt sich auch für den Bereich Geoinformation die Chance einer umfangreichen Präsentation. Dies soll am Beispiel der Homepage der Abteilung Geoinformation, Institut für Landesvermessung und Ingenieurgeodäsie, Technische Universität Wien, demonstriert werden.

Radovan, D. and A. Krek (1997): Slovene Geoinformation Infrastructure (SGII) (in Slovene language). ONIX Conference, Koper, Slovenia.
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Radovan, D. and A. Krek (1997): Development of the Slovene Geoinformation Infrastructure (Slovene language). Onix Conference, Maribor, Slovenia, Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning.
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Pontikakis-Coyne, E. (1997): Town of Vienna (Virginia), Geographic Information System Demonstration Project. Annandale, Virginia, USA, Northern Virginia Planning District Commission.
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Pegan-Zvokelj, B., A. Krek, et al. (1997): GIS Catalogue (in Slovene language). Ljubljana, Slovenia, Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning: (first; 443 pages, second; 216 pages).
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Meixner, H. and A. U. Frank (1997): Study on Policy Issues Relating to Geographic Information in Europe, European Commission.
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Medak, D. (1997): Lifestyles - A Formal Model. Chorochronos Intensive Workshop '97, Petronell-Carnuntum, Austria, Dept. of Geoinformation, TU Vienna.
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Medak, D. (1997): "Specialist Meeting Report "Formalising and Representing Spatial and Temporal Change in Spatial Socio-Economic Units, Nafplion, Greece, 22-26 May 1996"." GISDATA Newsletter(8): 16-18.
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Kuhn, W. (1997): "Approaching the Issue of Information Loss in Geographic Data Transfers." Geographical Systems 4(3): 261-276.
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Geographic data are now being transferred on a daily basis within and between organizations worldwide. The low-level technical problems of data transmissions are largely solved and significant progress on transfer formats is being made by standardization bodies. However, an issue that had long been considered minor is turning into a can of worms: the problem of transferring geographic information, i.e., the meaning of the data and not just the data themselves. This paper proposes to approach this problem algebraically, in three steps: (1) to formalize data models as algebras, describing data and operations together; (2) to describe mappings between models as morphisms, formalizing the transfer functions; and (3) to model invariant properties as homomorphisms, identifying everything else as information loss. An outline of this approach is presented, applied to a detailed example, and discussed with respect to its practicality.

Hirtle, S. C. and A. U. Frank, Eds. (1997): Spatial Information Theory - A Theoretical Basis for GIS
(Proceedings of the Int. Conference COSIT'97)
. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.
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Haunold, P., S. Grumbach, et al. (1997): Linear Constraints: Geometric Objects Represented by Inequalities. Spatial Information Theory - A Theoretical Basis for GIS (Int. Conference COSIT'97). S. C. Hirtle and A. U. Frank. Berlin-Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol.1329: 429-440.
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Haunold, P., A. U. Frank, et al. (1997): Geometric Objects Represented by Inequalities. Angewandte Geographische Informationsverarbeitung IX (AGIT), Salzburg (2. - 4.Juli 1997), Institut fuer Geographie, Universitaet Salzburg.
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Frank, A. U. and D. Medak (1997): Executable Axiomatic Specification Using Functional Language - Case Study: Base Ontology for a Spatio-Temporal Database. rej EJCIMKB’97, Institute for Geoinformation, TU Vienna.
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Frank, A. U. and S. Winter, Eds. (1997): First Chorochronos Intensive Workshop CIW 97. Chorochronos Technical Reports. Carnuntum, Austria.
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Frank, A. U., W. Kuhn, et al., Eds. (1997): Gofer as used at GeoInfo (TU Vienna). GeoInfo Series. Vienna, Austria, Dept. of Geoinformation, TU Vienna.
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Frank, A. U. (1997): Geographische Informationssysteme heute und im Jahre 2000. Kommunale Informationssysteme. Wien, Österr. Kunst- und Kulturverlag.
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Frank, A. U. (1997): Geographic information business in the next century. Third Joint European Conference on Geographical Information, JEC-GI'97, Vienna (April 16-18, 1997), IOS Press, Amsterdam.
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Frank, A. U. (1997): Higher order functions necessary for spatial theory development. Auto-Carto 13, Seattle, Wash. (April 7-10, 1997), ACSM/ASPRS.
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Frank, A. U., G. S. Volta, et al. (1997): "Formalization of Families of Categorical Coverages." IJGIS 11(3): 215-231.
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Frank, A. U. (1997): Spatial Ontology: A Geographical Point of View. Spatial and Temporal Reasoning. O. Stock. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers: 135-153.
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Ontology is the science of objects. It is an ancient discipline, which has recently been rediscovered, and overhauled, for the purposes of Artificial Intelligence. Ontology has been concerned with the properties of objects, with their modes of existence and with questions such as how they can be divided in parts and how they fill space.
This presentation takes the position of a user of ontologies. It will seek to show not only that there is a 'production of ontologies' in the research literature, but also that these ontologies are useful and can be used. The paper will concentrate on the latter two issues, focusing on a particular area of application, namely that of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It will answer the question, how can ontologies be used and how can they contribute to building better information systems? This will mostly be done by showing how the lack of a consistent ontology in a system causes difficulties for its users.
The paper will conclude with a set of recommendations as to how ontologies can be made more useful and how the connection between the producers and consumers of an ontology can be structured to make the exchange of ideas more effective. I will also list a number of broad general directions and specific topics which I believe may yield useful contributions both from a scientific and from an engineering point of view.
This paper is built on a simple metaphor: ontologies are products and are sold in the international supermarket of AI research. In this supermarket, consumers look for ontologies which fulfill their particular needs. They select ontologies to describe the entities in their application domain and the chosen ontologies must form a consistent ensemble. Unfortunately, contradictions and other inconsistencies may become apparent as one seeks to implement the information system. In consequence, producers of ontologies must put clear labels on the products on the shelf, indicating the advantages and disadvantages of each ontology and indicating also potential conflicts with other ontologies: "Truth in labeling for ontologies!"


Car, A. (1997): Hierarchical Graph - A spatial concept for an efficient organization of spaces and wayfinding. CHI'97 - Workshop on Navigation on Electronic Worlds, Atlanta, GA (March 23-24, 1997).
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Car, A. (1997): Hierarchical Spatial Reasoning: Theoretical Consideration and its Application to Modeling Wayfinding. Vienna, Department of Geoinformation, Technical University Vienna.
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Car, A. and A. U. Frank (1997): "Formalisierung konzeptioneller Modelle für GIS - Methode und Werkzeug." Zeitschrift für Vermessungswesen 122(3): 99-114.
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Die Entwicklung offener GIS erfordert präzise und systemunabhängige Beschreibungen konzeptioneller Modelle. Der Austausch geographischer Daten und die Verwendung von Programmodulen verschiedener Hersteller ist nur möglich, wenn die Semantik der Daten und Operationen formal beschrieben ist. Dieser Artikel stellt eine praktikable Methode (algebraische Spezifikationen) und ein public domain Werkzeug (die funktionale Programmiersprache Gofer) vor, die sich für solche Formalisierungen besonders gut eignen. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über Methode und Werkzeug und zeigt, warum sie leicht zu erlernen und anzuwenden sind.

Bittner, T. (1997): A Qualitative Coordinate Language of Location of Figures within the Ground. Spatial Information Theory - A Theoretical Basis for GIS (Internat.ional Conference COSIT'97). S. C. Hirtle and A. U. Frank. Berlin-Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol.1329: 223-240.
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Bittner, T. and A. U. Frank (1997): An Introduction to the Application of Formal Theories to GIS. Angewandte Geographische Informationsverarbeitung IX (AGIT), Salzburg, Institut fuer Geographie, Universitaet Salzburg.
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1996 back


Twaroch, C. (1996): "Rechtliche Aspekte im Geoinformationswesen." Zeitschrift für Vermessungswesen(3): 16.
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Timpf, S. (1996): A multi-scale data structure for zooming. COSIT'95 Doctoral Consortium. W. Kuhn and S. Timpf. Vienna, Dept. of Geoinformation. 9: 15-23.
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Timpf, S., M. Raubal, et al. (1996): Experiences with Metadata. 7th Int. Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, SDH'96, Advances in GIS Research II, Delft, The Netherlands (August 12-16, 1996), IGU.
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Raubal, M. and M. Staudinger (1996): "2. International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT'95), Semmering, Österreich, 21.-23. September 1995." ZfV 121(5): 235-236.
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Raubal, M. and M. Staudinger (1996): "Bericht von der 2. Internationalen Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT'95)." AVN 1996(5): 218-221.
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Raubal, M. and M. Staudinger (1996): "Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT'95)." VPK/MPG 94(5/1996): 305-307.
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Raubal, M. and M. Staudinger (1996): "Report from the 2nd International Conference On Spatial Information Theory (COSIT'95), Semmering, Austria." Geo-Information-Systems 9(2, April 1996): 38-41.
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Raubal, M. and M. Staudinger (1996): "2. International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT'95) - Semmering, 21.-23. September 1995." VGI 84(1/96): 93-95.
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Raubal, M. and M. Staudinger (1996): "2. International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT'95) - Interessenten aus den Ingenieurwissenschaften, aus Psychologie, Philosophie und der Kartographie." Informatik Spektrum 19(1): 40.
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Raubal, M. and M. Staudinger (1996): COSIT 95: Making sense of spatial data. GIS Europe. 5: 20.
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Raubal, M., H. Schachinger, et al. (1996): A multimedia exploration for Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition, Department of Geoinformation, Technical University Vienna.
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Raubal, M. and M. Staudinger (1996): 2. International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT'95), Semmering, Österreich, 21.-23. September 1995. ZfV. 121: 235-236.
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Raubal, M. and M. Staudinger (1996): Bericht von der 2. Internationalen Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT'95). AVN. 1996: 218-221.
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Raubal, M. and M. Staudinger (1996): Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT'95). VPK/MPG. 94: 305-307.
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Raubal, M. and M. Staudinger (1996): Report from the 2nd International Conference On Spatial Information Theory (COSIT'95), Semmering, Austria. Geo-Information-Systems. 9: 38-41.
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Raubal, M. and M. Staudinger (1996): 2. International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT'95) - Semmering, 21.-23. September 1995. VGI. 84: 93-95.
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Raubal, M. and M. Staudinger (1996): 2. International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT'95) - Interessenten aus den Ingenieurwissenschaften, aus Psychologie, Philosophie und der Kartographie. Informatik Spektrum. 19: 40.
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Raubal, M. and M. Staudinger (1996): COSIT 95: Making sense of spatial data. GIS Europe. 5: 20.
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Montello, D. R. and A. U. Frank (1996): Modeling directional knowledge and reasoning in environmental space: testing qualitative metrics. The Construction of Cognitive Maps. J. Portugali. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers: 321-344.
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Medak, D. (1996): Lifestyles - An Algebraic Approach to Change in Identity. Spatio-Temporal Database Management (International Workshop STDBM'99, Edinburgh, Scotland, Sept. 10-11, 1999). M. H. Böhlen, C. S. Jensen and M. O. Scholl. Berlin, Springer-Verlag. 1678: 19-38.


Mark, D. M. and A. U. Frank (1996): "Experiential and Formal Models of Geographic Space." Environment and Planning, Series B 23: 3-24.
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Kuhn, W. (1996): Handling Data Spatially: Spatializing User Interfaces. 7th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, SDH'96, Advances in GIS Research II, Delft, The Netherlands (August 12-16, 1996), IGU.
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Kuhn, W. and B. Blumenthal (1996): Spatialization: Spatial metaphors for user interfaces. Vienna, Dept. of Geoinformation.
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Kuhn, W. (1996): Semantics of Geographic Information. Vienna, Dept. of Geoinformation.
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Kuhn, W. and S. Timpf, Eds. (1996): COSIT'95 Doctoral Consortium. GeoInfo Series. Vienna, Dept. of Geoinformation.
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Kuhn, W. and A. U. Frank (1996): Toward Usable Spatial Information. ISPRS, Vienna, Austria; 9-19 July 1996, International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
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Spatial data are being collected at an increasing pace, with photogrammetry and remote sensing serving as the most productive data collecting disciplines. At the same time, markets for spatial information are emerging world-wide. Still too often, however, there is a mismatch between the demand and supply of spatial information: data being collected and offered sometimes do not meet the expectations of potential buyers.
The malfunctioning of spatial data markets has many reasons, ranging from the fact that users are often unaware of existing data to the difficulties in interpreting and processing spatial data once they have been bought, to institutional and legal obstacles. A major technical reason is the lacking usability of data collections.
The presentation addresses the issue of usability and discusses the widely proposed remedy of metadata. It concludes that the most effective step toward usable spatial data is not to document data collections, but to modularise them into small manageable units and packaging them with suitable operations. This vision of future spatial information services is currently being pursued under the heading of “Open GIS”.

Kemp, K. K. and A. Frank (1996): "Toward Consensus on a European GIS Curriculum: The International Post-Graduate Course on GIS." International Journal Geographical Information Systems 10(4): 477-497.
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Hölbling, W., W. Kuhn, et al. (1996): Discrete Simplicial Complexes. 12th European Workshop on Computational Geometry, CG'96, Muenster, Germany (March 28-29, 1996).
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Hölbling, W. (1996): Das diskrete simpliziale Datenmodell, Technical University Vienna.
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Haunold, P. (1996): A Common European Reference Frame. GI Policy.
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Ghiselli-Grippa, T., S. C. Hirtle, et al. (1996): Connectionist Models in Spatial Cognition. The Construction of Cognitive Maps. J. Portugali. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer.
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Frank, A. U. (1996): The Prevalence of Objects with Sharp Boundaries in GIS. Geographic Objects with Indeterminate Boundaries. P. A. Burrough and A. U. Frank. London, Taylor & Francis: 29-40.
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Frank, A. U. (1996): "A Question of Semantics." GIS Europe(October 1996): 26.
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Frank, A. U. (1996): Der Nutzen und der Preis von Geographischer Information. AGIT'96, Salzburg, Institut für Geographie der Universität Salzburg.
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Frank, A. U. (1996): Radial Categories Applied to Object-Oriented Modeling: A Case Study for a Property Registration System. 1st Int. Conference on Geographic Information Systems in Urban, Regional and Environmental Planning, Island of Samos, Greece (April 19-21, 1996).
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Frank, A. U. (1996): "Qualitative Spatial Reasoning: Cardinal Directions as an Example." IJGIS 10(3): 269-290.
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Geographers use spatial reasoning extensively in large-scale spaces, i.e., spaces that cannot be seen or understood from a single point of view. Spatial reasoning differentiates several spatial relations, e.g. topological or metric relations, and is typically formalized using a Cartesian coordinate system and vector algebra. This quantitative processing of information is clearly different from the ways humans draw conclusions about spatial relations. Formalized qualitative reasoning processes are shown to be a necessary part of Spatial Expert Systems and Geographic Information Systems. Addressing a subset of the total problem, namely reasoning with cardinal directions, a completely qualitative method, without recourse to analytical procedures, is introduced and a method for its formal comparison with quantitative formulae is defined. The focus is on the analysis of cardinal directions and their properties. An algebraic method is used to formalize the meaning of directions. The standard directional symbols (N, W, etc.) are supplemented with a symbol corresponding to an undetermined direction between points too close to each other which greatly increases the power of
the inference rules. Two specific systems to determine and reason with cardinal directions are discussed in some detail.
From this example and some other previous work, a comprehensive set of research steps is laid out, following a mathematically based taxonomy. It includes the extension of distance and direction reasoning to extended objects and the definitions of other metric relations that characterize situations when objects are not disjointed. The conclusions compare such an approach with other concepts.

Frank, A. U. (1996): An object-oriented, formal approach to the design of cadastral systems. 7th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, SDH '96, Advances in GIS Research II, Delft, The Netherlands (August 12-16, 1996), IGU.
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Frank, A. U., P. Haunold, et al. (1996): Representation of Geometric Objects as Set of Inequalities. 12th European Workshop on Computational Geometry, CG'96, Muenster, Germany (March 28-29, 1996).
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Colic Kresimir, Basic Tomislav, et al. (1996): "Croatia in EUREF'94 and the Project CRODYN." Geodetski list 50 (73)(4): 331-351.
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Car, A. (1996): General principles of hierarchical spatial reasoning. COSIT'95 Doctoral Consortium. W. Kuhn and S. Timpf. Vienna, Dept. of Geoinformation. 9: 78-88.
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Car, A. (1996): Hierarchical Spatial Reasoning: Theoretical Consideration and its Application to Modeling Wayfinding. Ph.D. Department of Geoinformation. Vienna, Technical University Vienna: 151.
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Car, A. and A. Frank (1996): Formalisierung konzeptioneller Modelle für GIS - Methode und Werkzeug, Dept. of Geoinformation, TU Vienna.
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Die Entwicklung offener GIS erfordert präzise und systemunabhängige Beschreibungen konzeptioneller Modelle. Der Austausch geographischer Daten und die Verwendung von Programmodulen verschiedener Hersteller ist nur möglich, wenn die Semantik der Daten und Operationen formal beschrieben ist. Dieser Artikel stellt eine praktikable Methode (algebraische Spezifikationen) und ein public domain Werkzeug (die funktionale Programmiersprache Gofer) vor, die sich für solche Formalisierungen besonders gut eignen. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über Methode und Werkzeug und zeigt, warum sie leicht zu erlernen und anzuwenden sind.

Car, A. (1996): Hierarchical Wayfinding - A Model and its Formalization. ESF - GISDATA Summer Institute (1996), Berlin.
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Burrough, P. A. and A. U. Frank, Eds. (1996): Geographic Objects with Indeterminate Boundaries. GISDATA Series. London, Taylor & Francis.
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Bittner, T. (1996): Levels of spatial inference. COSIT'95 Doctoral Consortium. W. Kuhn and S. Timpf. Vienna, Dept. of Geoinformation. 9: 67-77.
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