Research Group Geoinformation


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... to the Cartography Group

1991 - 1995

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1995 back

Timpf, S. and A. Frank (1995): A multi-scale data structure for cartographic objects. ICC'95, Barcelona.
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Timpf, S. and A. U. Frank (1995): A Multi-Scale DAG for Cartographic Objects. Auto-Carto 12, Charlotte, NC (Feb. 27 - March 1, 1995), ACM/ASPRS.
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Staudinger, M. (1995): Ergonomie im Vermessungswesen: Konzept einer Evaluationsmethode für tachymetrische Mess-Systeme. Abt. Geoinformation und Landesvermessung. Wien, Technische Universität: 101.


Pontikakis-Coyne, E. (1995): Directory of Agencies that Respond to Fish Kills for the Washington Metropolitan Region. Washington, D.C., USA, Metroplitan Washington Council of Governments.


Papadias, D., Y. Theodoridis, et al. (1995): Topological Relations in the World of Minimum Bounding Rectangles: a Study with R-trees. ACM Conference on the Modelling of Data (SIGMOD), San Jose, CA, ACM Press.


Papadias, D. and T. Sellis (1995): "A Pictorial Query-By-Example Language." Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, Special Issue on Visual Query Systems 6(1): 53-72.


Kuhn, W. and A. U. Frank, Eds. (1995): Spatial Information Theory - A Theoretical Basis for GIS
(Proceedings of the Int. Conference COSIT'95)
. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.
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Kuhn, W. (1995): Semantics of geographic information. Institute for Geoinformation and Land Survey. Vienna, Technical University Vienna: 81.
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Kuhn, W. (1995): Semantics of Geographic Data - Approaching a Neglected Issue. Workshop "Current Status and Challenges of Geoinformation Systems", University of Hannover (Sept. 25-28, 1995), IUSM Working Group on LIS/GIS.
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Kuhn, W. (1995): 7+/-2 Questions and Answers about Metaphors for GIS User Interfaces. Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction for Geographic Information Systems. T. L. Nyerges, D. M. Mark, R. Laurini and M. J. Egenhofer. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers. 83: 113-122.
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Krek, A., D. Radovan, et al. (1995): Catalogue of Digital Spatial Data. Ljubljana, Slovenia, Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning. 1: 143.


Hong, J.-H., M. J. Egenhofer, et al. (1995): On the Robustness of Qualitative Distance- and Direction-Reasoning. Auto-Carto 12, Charlotte, North Carolina (Feb. 27 - March 1, 1995).
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This paper focuses on spatial information derived from the composition of two pairs of cardinal directions (e.g., North and North-East) and approximate distances (e.g., near and far), i.e., given the approximate distances a1 (A, B) and a2 (B, C) and the cardinal directions c1 (A, B) and c2 (B, C), what are a3 (A, C) and c3 (A, C)? Spatial reasoning about cardinal directions and approximate distances is challenging because distance and direction will affect the composition. This paper investigates the dependency between qualitative and quantitative inference methods for reasoning about cardinal directions and approximate distances. Cardinal directions are based on a 4-sector model (North, East, South, West), while approximate distance correspond to a set of ordered intervals that provide a complete partition (non-overlapping and mutually exclusive) such that the following interval is greater than or equal to the previous one (for example, “far” would extend over a distance that is at least as great as “medium.”) We ran comprehensive simulations of quantitative reasoning, and compared the results with the ones obtained from quantitative reasoning. The results indicate that the composition is robust if the ratio between two consecutive intervals of quantitative distances is greater than 3.

Haunold, P. and W. Kuhn (1995): Die Analyse von manuellen Digitalisierungsabläufen. GEO-NEWS. 3: 8-9.
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Frank, A. U., Ed. (1995): Geographic Information Systems - Materials for a post-graduate course; Vol. 3: GIS Organization. GeoInfo Series. Vienna, Austria, Dept. of Geoinformation, TU Vienna.


Frank, A. U., Ed. (1995): Geographic Information Systems - Materials for a post-graduate course; Vol. 2: GIS Technology. GeoInfo Series. Vienna, Austria, Dept. of Geoinformation, TU Vienna.


Frank, A. U., Ed. (1995): Geographic Information Systems - Materials for a post-graduate course; Vol. 1: Spatial Information. GeoInfo Series. Vienna, Austria, Dept. of Geoinformation, TU Vienna.


Frank, A. U., W. Kuhn, et al. (1995): Temporal Data in Geographic Information Systems. Vienna, Dept. of Geoinformation.


Frank, A. U. (1995): New Technologies for Spatial Information Management. Cambridge Conference for National Mapping Organisations, St. John's College, Cambridge (25 July - 1 August, 1995), Ordnance Survey, UK.


Frank, A. U. (1995): Strategies for the Introduction of GIS. ISPRS WG III/4: Tutorial 'Basic Concepts of GIS', Budapest (June 12-13, 1995).


Frank, A. U. (1995): "Surveying Education for the Future." Geomatica 49(3): 273-282.
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Frank, A. U. and S. Timpf (1995): "Forschungsprojekte der Abteilung Geoinformation an der TU Wien." Nachrichten aus dem Karten- und Vermessungswesen 1(113): 51-63.
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Frank, A. U. (1995): Telecommunication and GIS - Opportunities and Challenges. Networking Spatial Information Systems. P. W. Newton, P. R. Zwart and M. E. Cavill. West Sussex, England, Wiley: 235-250.
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Frank, A. U. and W. Kuhn (1995): Specifying Open GIS with Functional Languages. Advances in Spatial Databases (4th International Symposium, SSD'95 in Porand, ME). M. J. Egenhofer and J. R. Herring, Springer-Verlag. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 951: 184-195.
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The concept of Open GIS depends on precise definitions of data, operations and interfaces. This paper argues for the use of functional programming languages as specification and prototyping tools for Open GIS components. It shows how functional programming languages fulfill the key requirements for formal specification languages and allow for rapid prototyping in addition. So far, it has never been possible to integrate specification and prototyping in a single, easy to use environment. Most existing specification methods lack appropriate tools for checking and prototyping, while existing tools lack either sound semantics or usability or both. The paper discusses the role of specifications in GIS, requirements for specification languages, and presents the basics of algebraic specifications as well as of functional languages. It then describes how functional languages can be used for writing and executing algebraic specifications. A brief example of a GIS data type specification in a functional language is presented, showing how specifications serve to describe differences in the semantics of GIS operations. We conclude that functional languages have the potential to achieve a breakthrough in the problem of specifying interfaces of interoperable components for Open GIS.

Frank, A. U. and M. Wallace (1995): Constraint Based Modeling in a GIS: Road Design as a Case Study. Auto-Carto 12, Charlotte, North Carolina (Feb. 27 - March 2, 1995).

Modeling in GIS is limited to the standard geometric data models: vector and raster. Not all problems can be expressed in these models and extensions are requested by applications. To determine precise requirements for extensions, case studies are beneficial. In this paper the focus is on the expressive power required for design applications. A significant part of the road design task is used as a case study to explore if constraint databases can contribute to the solution. Road design is a suitable example for GIS design applications, as road design in the past used topographic maps and map analysis methods.
The general design task for the layout of a highway is presented: Find the technically feasible alternative road layouts between two points. Select the best for further assessment. Given are the design parameters of the road (design speed, minimal radius of curves, maximum slope) and information about the terrain (land cover, elevation, geology).
The problem is sufficiently complex to pose substantial research questions, but simple enough to be tractable. Three observations result from this case study:
- Constraint databases can be used to model continuos variables, and therefore space (not only discrete points in space),
- Representing space with a Delaunay triangulation leads to conceptual simplifications,
- The original constraint of the road design problem, which are of a higher degree, can be linearized to make the problem computationally tractable.
A test implementation is underway, exploring the performance aspects of the use of constraint databases for road design.


Car, A. and A. U. Frank (1995): Formalisierung konzeptioneller Modelle für GIS - Methode und Werkzeug. AGIT'95, Salzburg.
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Die Entwicklung offener GIS erfordert präzise und systemunabhängige Beschreibungen konzeptioneller Modelle. Der Austausch geographischer Daten und die Verwendung fremder Module ist nur möglich, wenn die Semantik der Daten und Operationen formal beschrieben ist. Dieser Workshop stellt eine praktikable Methode (algebraische Spezifikationen) und ein public domain Werkzeug (die funktionale Sprache Gofer) vor, die sich für solche Formalisierungen besonders gut eignen. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über die Methode und das Werkzeug.

Car, A. and A. U. Frank (1995): Formalization of Conceptual Models for GIS using GOFER. GIS/LIS '95 Central Europe, Budapest, Hungary.
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Formalization of spatial concepts is an important task for GIS. This paper focuses on a formalization of the conceptual model of hierarchy of space: wayfinding in a hierarchically structured road network is studied as a particular case. The formalization method introduced here uses algebraic specifications. We have found tools which allow to execute algebraic specification. The functional programing language Gofer is suitable for writing formal specifications and their execution. It allows formal checks of the specifications on consistency, and supports rapid prototyping. This helps to control that the specification captures the intended semantics. Examples show the formalization of the objects defined in the ontology of the proposed conceptual model for a graph structure.

Car, A. and A. U. Frank (1995): "Formalization of Conceptual Models for GIS using Gofer." Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems 19(2): 89-98.
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Formalization of spatial concepts is an important task for GIS. This paper focuses on a formalization of the conceptual model of hierarchy of space: wayfinding in a hierarchically structured road network is studied as a particular case. The formalization method introduced here uses algebraic specifications. We have found tools which allow to execute algebraic specification. The functional programing language Gofer is suitable for writing formal specifications and their execution. It allows formal checks of the specifications on consistency, and supports rapid prototyping. This helps to control that the specification captures the intended semantics. Examples show the formalization of the objects defined in the ontology of the proposed conceptual model for a graph structure.

Campari, I. and A. U. Frank (1995): Cultural Differences and Cultural Aspects in Geographical Information Systems. Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction for Geographic Information Systems. T. L. Nyerges, D. M. Mark, R. Laurini and M. J. Egenhofer. Dordrecht, the Netherlands, Kluwer. 83: 249-266.
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Buyong, T. B., A. Frank, et al. (1995): "Konzeptualni model visenamjenskog katastra zasnovan na mjerenjima." Geodetski list 49(72)(4): 271-364.
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Burrough, P. A. and A. U. Frank (1995): "Concepts and paradigms in spatial information: are current geographical information systems truly generic?" International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 9(2): 101-116.
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Abstract. This article considers the philosophical and experiential foundations of human perception of geographical phenomena and their abstraction and coding in geographical information systems. It examines the role of culture and language in describing geographical reality and explores the ways geographical data models reflect how people view the world. Differences between those who see the world as made of exact entities and smooth continuous surfaces, and those who prefer to view reality as a dynamic and complex are explored in terms of five aspects of spatial data, namely (i) objects versus fields, (ii) single scale versus multiple scales, (iii) Boolean versus multivalued logic, (iv) static versus dynamic descriptions and (v) determinism versus uncertainty. These five aspects are further divided into nine factors of geographical data which indicate the differences in the way people perceive spatial data. Eight "typical" GIS applications and four generic methods of handling spatial data are examined in terms of these nine factors to define a GIS "hyperspace". The locations of the typical applications and the generic methods in this hyperspace show why no single generic approach to spatial data handling is sufficient for all possible applications. The analysis reinforces the authors' contention that spatial data analysis tools need to be chosen and developed to match the way users perceive their domains: these tools should not impose alien thought modes on users just because they are impressively "high tech". The implications of this conclusion for choosing or developing spatial information systems, for data standardization and generalisation and for the further development of "GIS" as a discipline in its own right are presented as topics for further discussion.

1994 back

Twaroch, C. (1994): "Grundstücksgrenzen und Kataster." Österreichische Notariatszeitung(3): 54-61.


Timpf, S., P. Burrough, et al. (1994): Concepts and paradigms for spatial data: geographical objects with indeterminate boundaries, ESF.
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Staudinger, M. (1994): "Dritte interdisziplinäre Tagung "Geowissenschaftliche/Geotechnische Daten in Landinformationssystemen (GeoLIS III) vom 6.-8. April 1994 in Wien." ZfV 119(7): 368-369.


Staudinger, M. (1994): "3. Internationale Tagung "Geowissenschaftliche/Geotechnische Daten in Landinformationssystemen" (GeoLIS III) in Wien." VGI 82(3): 272-274.


Stanek, H., M. Staudinger, et al. (1994): Task analyses for total station operations. FIG XX Congress Commission 3, Melbourne/Australia, March 5-12, 1994.
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Schwalenstocker, M. and E. Pontikakis (1994): District of Columbia Environmental GIS User's Manual. Washington, D.C., USA, Metroplitan Washington Council of Governments.


Papadias, D. and T. Andronikos (1994): Relation-Based Information Processing with Symbolic Spatial Indexes. International Workshop on Advanced Research in Geographic Information Systems (IGIS), Ascona, Switzerland, Springer Verlag.


Papadias, D., Y. Theodoridis, et al. (1994): The Retrieval of Direction Relations Using R trees. 5th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, (DEXA), Athens, Greece, Springer Verlag.


Papadias, D. and M. Kavouras (1994): Acquiring, Representing and Processing Spatial Relations. 6th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling (SDH), Edinburgh, UK, Taylor Francis.


Papadias, D. and T. Sellis (1994): A Pictorial Language for the Retrieval of Spatial Relations from Image Databases. 6th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling (SDH), Edinburgh, UK, Taylor Francis.


Papadias, D., A. U. Frank, et al. (1994): Constraint-Based Reasoning in Geographic Databases: The Case of Symbolic Arrays. 2nd ICLP Workshop on Deductive Databases, Santa Margherita Ligure, Italy, Publication Series of the GMD.
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Kuhn, W. (1994): Zur Verwendbarkeit von Geographischen Informationssystemen (GIS). UTA (Umwelt Technologie Aktuell). 5: 88-93.

Geographische Informationssysteme (GIS) enthalten und produzieren räumliche Informationen, die für eine intelligente Nutzung unserer Umwelt notwendig sind. Die Informationen reichen von individuellen Angelegenheiten, z.B. Erteilung einer Bauerlaubnis, bis hin zu Fragen über die Zukunft der Menschheit. GIS haben ein enormes Potential, da sie eine mächtige Technologie beinhalten, die uns erlaubt Dinge zu tun, die vorher nicht möglich waren. Es gibt eine große Anzahl von Anwendungen, die die GIS Technologie noch nicht nutzen, und einige von ihnen sind für die Allgemeinheit wichtig (z.B. Fahrzeugnavigationssysteme). Die folgende Figur gibt einige Anhaltspunkte zum Wachstum des gesamten GIS Marktes in Europa und zu dessen Verteilung auf einzelne Anwendungsbereiche.

Kuhn, W., P. Haunold, et al. (1994): The GIS User Interface as a Major Economical Factor: A Case Study in Manual Map Digitizing. FIG XX, Melbourne, Australia; March 1994.
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Geographic information systems (GIS) have become a widely used technology for managing spatially referenced information in the private and public sectors. The rapid growth of the market for GIS technology and digital spatial data raises some crucial economic issues. While past GIS implementations were primarily concerned with hardware and software capabilities, the focus of attention is now shifting to issues of effective system use by individuals and organizations. Among these issues are the usability of GIS and the cost of data, including their maintenance. This paper presents an analytical investigation of such issues in the context of GIS data acquisition by manual map digitizing at a national surveying and mapping agency.

Kuhn, W. (1994): Defining Semantics for Spatial Data Transfers. 6th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Edinburgh, UK, IGU.
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Sharing spatial information is a communication problem: How can the partners communicate with each other in order to combine and share the value of their data? Any successful communication requires a language which builds on a core of shared concepts and provides extension mechanisms to define the meaning of higher level concepts. For digital spatial data transfers, such languages and their semantics need to be formalized in order to be unambiguous and implementable. Current spatial data transfer standards fall short of this requirement. This paper proposes to define the semantics of spatial objects algebraically and shows how this approach copes with some of the problems inherent in current solutions. It concludes that some informal descriptions of semantics in standards already concur with the proposed theory and can thereby support the necessary formalization.


Haunold, P. and W. Kuhn (1994): A Keystroke Level Analysis of a Graphics Application: Manual Map Digitizing. CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Boston, MA; April 24-28, 1994, ACM.
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Frank, A. U. (1994): "Zielsetzung der Tagung GeoLIS III." Oesterreichische Zeitschrift fuer Vermessung und Geoinformation 82: 7 - 8.
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Frank, A. U., H. Stanek, et al. (1994): The Impact of Data Quality on Decision-Making in the Building Authorization Process: A Case Study. FIG XX Congress, Commission 3, Melbourne/Australia, March 5-12, 1994.
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Frank, A. U. (1994): Qualitative Temporal Reasoning in GIS - Ordered Time Scales. Sixth International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, SDH'94, Edinburgh, Scotland, Sept. 5-9, 1994, IGU Commission on GIS.
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Frank, A. U. and S. Timpf (1994): "Multiple Representations for cartographic objects in a multi-scale tree - an intelligent graphical zoom." Computers and Graphics; Special Issue on Modelling and Visualization of Spatial Data in GIS 18(6): 823-829.
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Car, A. (1994): "GeoLIS III: Bericht über die Konferenz GeoLIS III, Wien, 6. - 8. 4. 1994." Geodetski vestnik(2): 134-136.


Car, A. and A. U. Frank (1994): Modelling a Hierarchy of Space Applied to Large Road Networks. IGIS'94: Geographic Information Systems. International Workshop on Advanced Research in GIS. Monte Verita, Ascona, Switzerland. J. Nievergelt, Thomas Roos, Hans-Jörg Scheck and P. Widmayer. Berlin-Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 884: 15-24.
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Human beings use hierarchies extensively to simplify their conceptual models of reality and to perform reasoning more efficiently. Hierarchical structures are conceptually imposed on space and allow better performance of complex tasks in very large contexts. To understand how spatial hierarchies are formed and used is one of the most important questions in spatial reasoning research. In this project, wayfinding in large road networks is studied as a particular case. Humans can find fastest paths even in very large street networks quickly, applying a hierarchical strategy. Standard, non-hierarchical algorithms show performance that degrades rapidly with increasing network size. A hierarchical structure can be found as an abstraction from the hierarchy of street classes (expressway, highway, local road). This reduces the number of nodes involved in a search process, and allows to perform the search process in subnetworks more efficiently. We propose an algorithm which searches for an optimal path in the subgraph of the highest possible level. This leads to an efficient wayfinding algorithm, even where standard simple graph search algorithms for the shortest path become inadequate.

Car, A. and A. U. Frank (1994): General Principles of Hierarchical Spatial Reasoning - The Case of Wayfinding. Sixth Int. Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, SDH '94, Edinburgh, Scotland (September 5-9, 1994), IGU.
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Human beings use hierarchies extensively to simplify their conceptual models of reality and to perform reasoning more efficiently. Hierarchical structures are conceptually imposed on space and allow performance of complex tasks in very large contexts easily. To understand how spatial hierarchies are formed and used is one of the most important questions in spatial reasoning research.
Hierarchical spatial reasoning is a special case of a 'divide and conquer' strategy. A hierarchical structure is imposed on the problem. The solution proceeds along a path in this structure from top to bottom, excluding large areas of the problem space from consideration. The description of a spatial hierarchical reasoning method must contain three elements:
- a hierarchical structure imposed on space,
- a set of rules, how this structure is used in reasoning, in particular, when and how the algorithm passes between the levels,
- a comparison of the correctness of the results and the effectiveness of the hierarchical structurization (compared to a non-hierarchical method).
Wayfinding in large networks is studied as a particular case. Human beings can find the fastest path even in very large street networks very quickly applying a hierarchical strategy but non-hierarchical algorithms show performance that degrades rapidly with increases in the size of the network. For this problem the hierarchical structure is given as an abstraction from the hierarchy of different street classes (expressway, highway, local road). Then the rules for using this hierarchy to find a fastest path are justified and, last, the correctness of the results and the (abstract) performance are compared.
The methods and results provide the theory to heuristics currently proposed. In the particular case of Vehicle Navigation Systems the application of the hierarchical spatial reasoning theory allows us to find effectively fastest path in very large networks.

Car, A. and A. U. Frank (1994): Hierarchisches Räumliches Schließen - Allgemeine Prinzipien. 6. Symposium für Angewandte Geographische Informationsverarbeitung AGIT '94, Salzburg.
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Campari, I. (1994): GIS commands as small scale space terms: cross-cultural conflict of their spatial content. SDH'94, Sixth Internation Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Edinburgh, Scotland.

1993 back

Wailzer, S., A. Car, et al. (1993): The Conceptual Data Model for the University Information and Planning System of the Technical University Vienna. 16th Urban Data Management Symposium, Vienna, Austria, 6-10 Sept.1993, ADV Handelsgesellschaft m.b.H.


Twaroch, C. (1993): Grenzen des technischen Verstandes. Zivilgeometertagung.


Twaroch, C. (1993): "Landkarten als Werke im Sinne des Urheberrechtes." Österreichische Zeitschrift für Vermessung und Photogrammetrie(1): 3-7.


Timpf, S. (1993): Ein konzeptionelles Modell fuer Navigation in Fernstrassennetzen. Institut fuer Photogrammetrie und Ingenieurvermessung. Hannover, Universitaet Hannover.


Stanek, H. (1993): The Conceptual Data Model for the University Information and Planning System of the Technical University Vienna. 16th Urban Data Management Symposium, Vienna, Austria, 06.-10.09.1993, ADV Handelsgesellschaft m.b.H.


Stanek, H., M. Staudinger, et al. (1993): Evaluation of Geodetic Measurement Systems. Optical 3-D Measurement Techniques II: Application in inspection, quality control and robotics. A. Gruen and H. Kahmen. Zurich, Wichmann: 428-435.
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Stanek, H. and A. U. Frank (1993): Data quality - Necessary Complement for GIS Based Decision Making. 25th International Symposium: Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change, Graz.
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Stanek, H. and A. U. Frank (1993): GIS Based Decision Making Must Consider Data Quality. EGIS'93, Genoa, EGIS Foundation.
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Kuhn, W. (1993): Was ein GIS lernen muss, um seine Benützer zu bedienen. Grazer Geoinformatiktage '93, Graz, Austria, TU Graz.
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Nach einer weitverbreiteten Auffassung sind Programmsysteme für komplexe Anwendungen, wie etwa Geographische Informationssysteme (GIS), notwendigerweise auch kompliziert zu verwenden. Tatsächlich müssen sich die Benützer in der Praxis oft mehrere Monate in solche Systeme einarbeiten und deren Besonderheiten erlernen, bevor sie in der Lage sind, "das System zu bedienen" und es nutzbringend für ihre Aufgaben einzusetzen. Dieser Lernprozess ist weitgehend unabhängig vom Erwerb der erforderlichen Fachkenntnisse aus dem Anwendungsgebiet und stellt eine wirtschaftlich bedeutsame zusätzliche Belastung für Unternehmen und Behörden sowie eine psychologische Hürde für deren Mitarbeiter dar. Im Sinne eines Denkanstoßes kehrt der vorliegende Beitrag die übliche Fragestellung um und untersucht, wie sich heutige Systeme entwickeln müssen, was sie zu "lernen" haben, um ihre Benützer besser bedienen zu können.

Kuhn, W. (1993): Metaphors Create Theories for Users. Spatial Information Theory: A Theoretical Basis for GIS (COSIT '93). A. U. Frank and I. Campari. Berlin, Springer-Verlag. 716: 366-376.
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The notion of a spatial information theory is often understood in the sense of a theory underlying the design and implementation of geographic information systems (GIS). This paper offers a different perspective on spatial information theories, taking the point of view of people trying to solve spatial problems by using a GIS. It discerns a need for user level theories about spatial information and describes requirements for them. These requirements are then compared with various views on metaphors held in computer science and cognitive linguistics. It is concluded that a cognitive linguistics perspective on metaphors best matches the requirements for user level theories. Therefore, the user's needs for theories of spatial information should be dealt with by explicitly crafting metaphors to handle spatial information by human beings. The paper discusses traditional and possible future metaphor sources for spatial information handling tasks.

Kuhn, W. (1993): User Interfaces for Cadastral Systems. First Sharjah Conference on Geographic Information Systems and Applications (GISA 93), Sharjah, U.A.E., Sharjah Municipality.
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The success of GIS applications in any domain strongly depends on the usability of the technology for its intended users. A crucial component of a system's usability is its user interface. While user interface issues are being extensively studied and dealt with in the context of topographic mapping and spatial analysis, less emphasis has been placed so far on user interfaces for cadastral systems. This paper discusses some of the primary issues which have to be considered when designing or using GIS technology for cadastral applications. The paper focuses on three aspects which have a major impact on cadastral system usability: the analysis of cadastral tasks, the choice of suitable metaphors, and the attention to cultural differences. Based on these aspects, the paper draws some conclusions regarding future developments in the area of cadastral systems.

Kuhn, W. (1993): Various Perspectives on Interface Metaphors. EGIS'93, Genoa, Italy, EGIS Foundation.
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The interest in GIS user interface issues has dramatically risen over the past few years. A rapidly growing user community is becoming aware of the potential which GIS offer, but often hide behind archaic or complex interaction languages. Designers and vendors, on the other hand, are looking for effective ways to improve the applicability and usability of their systems. It is widely believed that one of the most promising approaches to designing better user interfaces is their foundation on metaphors. However, there are many different conceptions of what metaphors actually are and what role they play in user interfaces. This paper discusses and compares the various perspectives on interface metaphors offered by human-computer interaction and cognitive linguistics, as well as those predominant in today's GIS practice or likely to shape future GIS user interfaces.

Kemp, K. K. (1993): Toward Consensus on a European GIS Curriculum: The International Post-Graduate Course on GIS. UDMS 1993, Vienna, ADV Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Datenverarbeitung.


Kemp, K. K. (1993): GIS Education Options. ERIM, Graz.


Kemp, K. K., W. Kuhn, et al. (1993): Making High-Quality GIS Education Accessible: A European Initiative. Geo Info Systems. 3: 50-52.
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At the Technical University of Vienna, a major European Community funded initiative is creating a new approach to continuing education in GIS for professionals.

Haunold, P. and W. Kuhn (1993): Die Analyse von manuellen Digitalisierungsabläufen. Eich- und Vermessungsmagazin (EVM). 70: 37-40.
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Es gibt ein gemeinsames Projekt des BEV und der technischen Universität Wien, bei dem im Rahmen einer Diplomarbeit manuelle Digitalisierungsaufgaben analysiert werden. Das manuelle Digitalisieren von Landkarten bzw. in diesem Fall von Katasterplänen durch Mitarbeiter der Abteilung K4 und der örtlichen Vermessungsämter ist ein zeitaufwendiger und kostspieliger Prozeß. Auch soll durch den Übergang auf digitale Daten die Genauigkeit nicht verringert werden. Sie kann sogar erhöht werden, da man sich die benötigte Information kurzfristig beschaffen kann (kein Altern der Planunterlage).
Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung der Digitalisierung der Katastralmappe hinsichtlich der verwendeten Arbeitsschritte, deren Häufigkeit und Zeitaufwand. Weiters ist eine generelle Beschreibung der Arbeitsschritte und der Methode zur Digitalisierung zu erwarten. Daraus können sich Ansätze zu einer weiteren Optimierung dieser kostspieligen Aufgabe ergeben.

Haunold, P. (1993): Analyse manueller Digitalisierabläufe mit dem Keystroke-Level Modell. AGIT'93, Salzburg, Salzburger Geographische Materialien.
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Grundlegende Voraussetzungen für den Aufbau von GIS sind Datenbanken, in denen die Daten in digitaler Form vorhanden sind. Eine Frage von großer wirtschaftlicher Bedeutung ist dabei die Beschaffung der digitalen Daten. Obwohl neue Werkzeuge und Methoden direkt digitale Eingabedaten liefern, müssen alte Datenbestände in analoger Form, wie jene des österreichischen Katasters, erst in digitale Daten umgewandelt werden. Dies geschieht durch komplizierte und zeitaufwendige Arbeitsprozesse, wie dem manuellen Digitalisieren.
Eine Grundlage zur Suche nach Optimierungsmöglichkeiten für das Digitalisieren bietet eine Modellierung der dabei verwendeten Arbeitsschritte mit dem Keystroke-Level Modell. Dieses eignet sich zur Prädiktion des Zeitaufwandes für einfache Routineaufgaben, die von geübten Benutzern ausgeführt werden. Dazu wird jede Aufgabe in Aktionen auf Tastenanschlagsebene oder in andere minimale Aktionen zerlegt. Im Bereich der Textverarbeitung wurden Untersuchungen von Card, Moran und Newell 1983 erfolgreich durchgeführt und es konnten der genaue Zeitbedarf für in der Textverarbeitung verwendete Aufgaben prädiziert werden.


Haunold, P. and W. Kuhn (1993): A Keystroke Level Analysis of Manual Map Digitizing. Spatial Information Theory: Theoretical Basis for GIS. A. U. Frank and I. Campari. Heidelberg-Berlin, Springer Verlag. 716: 406-420.
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The acquisition of digital spatial data is a key economical factor in GIS projects. Transforming analog graphic data by manual digitizing is slow and therefore extremely expensive. The work reported here investigates the possibility to apply the Keystroke-Level Model to the modeling and optimization of manual digitizing tasks. This model predicts the time it takes an experienced user to perform routine tasks on a given system. It has been applied successfully for text editing tasks. Here, its suitability for manual digitizing is being tested and additional unit tasks are determined.
The applicability of the Keystroke-Level Model for manual digitizing tasks is analyzed in the context of a major national map digitizing effort. Currently, the agency responsible for topographic and cadastral mapping in Austria (Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen, BEV) develops a digital cadastral map (Digitale Katastral-Mappe, DKM). Scanned cadastral maps are being manually digitized on screen in order to transform analog graphic data into digital form. The article describes the principles of the model, the design of an experiment, and first encouraging results.

Frank (1993): Von der Datenbank zur Graphik - Transformation von Datenmodellen. GIS und Kartographie - Tagungsband zum Wiener Symposium 1991. W. Kainz and F. Mayer. Wien. 6: 8-16.
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Frank, A. U. (1993): Geographic Information Systems: A Challenge to Computer Graphics. EUROGRAPHICS 1993, Barcelona, EG 93 STAR.


Frank, A. U. (1993): GIS in the Year 2000. GIS: Technology and Applicatios. H. Lu and B. C. Ooi. Singapore, World Scientific: 189-208.


Frank, A. U. and I. Campari, Eds. (1993): Spatial Information Theory: Theoretical Basis for GIS. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Heidelberg-Berlin, Springer Verlag.
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Frank, A. (1993): The use of Geographical Information Systems: The user interface is the system. Human Factors in Geographical Information Systems. D. Medyckyj-Scott and H. Hearnshaw. London, Belhaven Press: 3-14.
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Car, A. (1993): GIS - Application for archaeological Survey in Styria (Austria) by Using Arc/INFO. ERIM - 25th International Symposium on Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change, Graz, Austria, 04.-08.04.1993.

In 1987 the Department for Pre- and Early History of the Landesmuseum Joanneum in Graz started an archaeological project. The goal of this project was to provide an efficient protection of archaeological monuments by using geographical information systems (GIS) in particular. The ORACLE database management system is used for managing archaeological surveying data. PC ARC/INFO, as the GIS-tool is used for visualization and analysis. This forms the foundation for building the Cultural Resource Management System for Styria. The current system is very easy to use by archaeologists; it provides menu-based user interface for interactive processing of the archaeological data.

Car, A. (1993): Hierarchical Road Networks: A Framework for Efficient Wayfinding. Poster. European Conference on Spatial Information Theory, COSIT '93, Marciana Marina, Island of Elba, Italy, 19.-22.09.1993.

One important function in Vehicle Navigation Systems is wayfinding. Real time processing in Vehicle Navigation Systems (VNS) is crucial for their practical use. Although, existing models of road networks and mathematical algorithms for wayfinding used in VNS do not always provide satisfactory results. One of the reasons is the large amount of inadequately structured data.
Humans can determine nearly optimal routes rapidly, independent of the size of the network. There is evidence that the human reasoning process of wayfinding structures the road network hierarchically. Three hierarchical levels of the road network system can be differentiated. The formalization process helps to determine the objects and their properties in each hierarchy level.
The primary hypothesis of this study is that the fastest path can be found by just considering the highest appropriate level. The algorithm sketched finds the optimal (or close to optimal) path, provided the difference between speed and between meshsizes at different hierarchy levels are within certain limits. The use of a hierarchically structured road networks as a conceptual model for wayfinding in Vehicle Navigation Systems provide results faster than current algorithms. Performance becomes essentially independent form the network size.

Car, A. (1993): Hierarchisches Straßennetz - Konzept für effiziente Wegesuche. Grazer Geoinformatiktage '93, Graz, Austria, 22.-23.04.1993.

Die in Automobilinformationssystemen verwendeten Straßennetz-Modelle und mathematischen Algorithmen für Wegesuche geben nicht immer befriedigende Resultate. Einer der Gründe ist die große Menge von Daten, welche für die schnelle Bearbeitung nicht entsprechend strukturiert ist. Das Projekt, dessen Grundidee in diesem Beitrag dargestellt wird, konzentriert sich auf das konzeptionelle Modellieren eines Straßennetzes zur effizienteren Wegesuche. Die Erkenntnisse über die Denkweise der Menschen bei der Suche nach dem schnellsten (nicht dem kürzesten) Weg im hierarchischen Straßennetz werden als Grundlage für diese Arbeit verwendet. Wir erwarten, daß die Anwendung eines hierarchischen Straßennetzes als kognitives Modell in Automobilinformationssystemen die Wegesuche beschleunigt und daher die Bearbeitung wesentlich größerer Netzwerke in Automobilinformationssystemen ermöglicht.

Car, A. and A. U. Frank (1993): Hierarchical Street Networks as a Conceptual Model for Efficient Way Finding. EGIS'93 - Fourth European Conference and Exhibition on Geographical Information Systems, Genova, Italy, ( March 29-April 1, 1993).
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The existing models of street networks and mathematical algorithms for way finding used in Vehicle Navigation Systems do not always provide satisfactory results. One of the reasons is the large amount of data not properly structured for real time processing. This paper concentrates on conceptual modeling of the human reasoning process of way finding in a hierarchically structured street network. The fastest (not the shortest) path is found by just considering the highest appropriate level of the network. The formalization process determines properties of street network elements in different hierarchical levels in order to find the fastest path. This conceptualization enables the determination of the relations between speed in different levels of the hierarchy and the size of the meshes per hierarchy level. We expect the use of hierarchical street networks as a conceptual model for way finding in Vehicle Navigation Systems to provide results faster than now and therefore allow processing of much larger networks.

Campari, I., F. Paterno', et al. (1993): The Design and Specification of a Visual Language: An Example for Geographic Information Systems Application. EGUK'93, EGUK Foundation.


Campari, I., G. Pozzana, et al. (1993): Integrazione di Valutazione di Impatto Ambientale e GIS. Milan, Franco Angeli.


Campari, I. and A. Frank (1993): GIS Commands. Cultural Sharing of Spatial Meanings, Dept. of Geoinformation, TU Wien.


Campari, I. and A. U. Frank (1993): Cultural Differences in GIS. A Basic Approach. EGIS'93, Genova, Italy, EGIS Foundation.
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Campari, I. (1993): Morphological Time in Urban Developement. NCGIA Spec. Meeting Initiative 10 "Time in Geographic Space", Lake Arrowhead, NCGIA.


Al-Taha, K. and A. U. Frank (1993): What a Temporal GIS can do for Cadastral Systems. GISA' 93, Sharjah, UAE., February 8-10, 1993.

1992 back


Twaroch, C. (1992): "Urheberrecht an topographischen und thematischen Karten." MAGAZIN - Österreich: 183-188.


Twaroch, C. (1992): "Eigentum und Grenzen an Gewässern." Österreichische Notariatszeitung(5): 121-127.


Turk, A. and W. Kuhn (1992): An Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Task Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Y. Waern and M. Tauber.

Geographic information systems (GIS ) manage information about the world in which we live in the form of data referenced to a spatial location. This chapter is intended to provide a brief introduction to the various uses of GIS and their requirements. Particular emphasis is placed on an understanding of GIS tasks and the conceptions of space affecting human interaction with the systems. A brief overview of the most prominent and accessible literature is given toward the end.

Timpf, S. (1992): Conceptual Modeling of Highway Navigation. Department of Surveying Engineering. Orono, Maine, University of Maine: 75.
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Timpf, S., G. S. Volta, et al. (1992): A conceptual model of Wayfinding using multiple levels of abstraction. Theories and Methods of Spatio-Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Space, Pisa, Italy, Springer-Verlag.
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Paiva, J. A. d. C., M. J. Egenhofer, et al. (1992): Spatial Reasoning about Flow Directions: Towards an Ontology for River Networks. International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. XVII Congress, Washington, D.C.
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Mark, D. M., A. U. Frank, et al. (1992): NCGIA Research Initiative 13, Report on the Specialist Meeting: User Interfaces for Geographic Information Systems, NCGIA Santa Barbara.
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Mark, D. M., A. U. Frank, et al. (1992): User interfaces for geographic information systems: a research agenda. Proceedings of the ASPRS/ACSM '92, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
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Kuhn, W. (1992): The Role of Metaphors in Task Analysis. Task Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Y. Waern and M. Tauber.

Design is fundamentally an iterative process, alternating between analyzing and synthesizing activities. Thus, it appears inappropriate to separate analysis and synthesis phases completely when designing tools for the support of human tasks. This paper suggests that the difficulty with traditional task analysis approaches lies in their separation between analysis (of existing tasks) and synthesis (of new tasks through an interface). Any task analysis involves a task synthesis and the two processes cannot be separated. Based on this premise, the paper investigates the role of metaphors in task analysis and concludes that metaphors are precisely the necessary mechanism which allows designers to integrate analysis and synthesis phases. Thus, the role of metaphors in task analysis and in interface design in general appears to be far more important than their current understanding implies. The ideas in the paper are illustrated by examples drawn from the domain of user interfaces for geographic information systems.

Kuhn, W. (1992): Paradigms in GIS Use. 5th International Symposium on Spatal Data Handling, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, IGU Commision on GIS.
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Kuhn, W. (1992): Die Benützerschnittstelle als Schlüssel für die Verwendbarkeit von geographischen Informationssystemen. Umweltanwendungen geographischer Informationssysteme. O. Günther, K.-P. Schulz and J. Seggelke, Wichmann: 217-221.


Kuhn, W. (1992): Approaching GIS Needs in the New Democracies. EGIS '92
Third European Conference and Exhibition on Geographical Information Systems, München, Deutschland, EGIS Foundation.
(download not available)


Krek, A. (1992): Participation of inhabitants in developing a physical plan; on the case of Zgornji Leskovec. Department of Geodesy. Ljubljana, Slovenia, University Ljubljana.


Frank, A. (1992): Telecommunication and GIS - opportunies and challenges. Networking Spatial Information Systems, Melbourne, Australia.
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Frank, A. and T. B. Buyong (1992): Geomertry for Three Dimensional GIS in Geoscienctific Applications. Nato ATW on 3D Modelling with Geoscientific Information Systems. K. Turner and e. al., Kluwer Academic Publishers: 233-257.
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Frank, A. U. (1992): "Qualitative Spatial Reasoning about Distances and Directions in Geographic Space." Journal of Visual Languages and Computing 3: 343-371.
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Frank, A., I. Campari, et al. (1992): Four Contributions to GIS Theory and Application. Pisa, Italy.

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Frank, A., M. Egenhofer, et al. (1992): Geographic Databases: The Issues and some Solutions. Conference Tutorials EDBT'92, Vienna, March 23-27, 1992.


Frank, A. U. and M. J. Egenhofer (1992): "Computer Cartography for GIS: An Object Oriented View on the Display Transformation." Computer and Geosciences 18(8): 975-987.
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Frank, A. (1992): "Spatial Concepts, Geometric Data Models and Geometric Data Structures." Computers & Geosciences 18(4): 409-417.
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There seems to be some uncertainty in the GIS literature regarding the use of the words data model and data structure. There is a clear understanding of these notions in the database literature and it is possible to define analogous terms for GIS: geometric data model and geometric data structure. Geometric data model is used to describe a formalized abstract set of spatial object classes and the operations performed on them. Geometric data structure is then the specific implementation of a geometric data model which fixes the storage structure, utilization, and performance. Humans organize their spatial perceptions using concepts that can be defined as spatial concepts to denote an informal or not directly implementable conceptual structure used to understand space. Examples are given to clarify the theoretical discussion.

Frank, A. U. (1992): "Acquiring a digital base map - A theoretical investigation into a form of sharing data." URISA Journal 4(1): 10 - 23.


Frank, A. U. (1992): Telecommunication and GIS - Opportunities and Challenges. GIS in Telecommunication. P. Z. e. al. Horrowitz.
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Frank, A. (1992): Auswahl eines GIS, Geo-Information, TU Wien.


Frank, A. (1992): Geographische Informationssysteme im Jahre 2000. Umweltanwendungen Geographischer Informationssysteme, Ulm, Deutschland.


Frank, A., I. Campari, et al., Eds. (1992): Theories and Methods of Spatio-Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Space. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 639. Heidelberg-Berlin, Springer Verlag.
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Frank, A. (1992): Spatial Reasoning - Theoretical Considerations and Practical Applications. EGIS '92
Third European Conference and Exhibition on Geographical Information Systems, Munich, Germany, EGIS Foundation.
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Flewelling, D. M., M. J. Egenhofer, et al. (1992): Constructing Geological Cross Sections with a Chronology of Geologic Events. 5th International Symposium on Spatal Data Handling, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, IGU Commision on GIS.
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Egenhofer, M. and A. Frank (1992): "Object Oriented Modeling for GIS." Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems URISA 4(2): 3-19.
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Egenhofer, M. J. and A. U. Frank (1992): User Interfaces for Spatial Information Systems: Manipulating the Graphical Representation. Geologisches Jahrbuch. R. Vinken. A 122: 59-69.
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Computerized information systems that are tailored to spatial data handling play an emerging role as sources of spatially-related information. By managing spatial data in computer systems, new methods are developed to share and exchange spatial information. Human understanding of spatial data and their means of communicating with spatial information systems are the focus of the present investigation. The dualism between operations to manipulate the graphical representation of spatial objects and how these representations are observed will be investigated.

Car, A. and I. Kainz (1992): Eine GIS - Applikation mit ARC/Info am Beispiel der Archäologischen Landesaufnahme in der Steiermark. Angewandte Geographische Informationstechnologie, AGIT'92, Salzburg.


Car, A. (1992): GIS - Automobilinformationssystem (AIS). Integration von Geographischen Informationssystemen und Straßenplanungs- und Straßenverwaltungsmodelle, Bled, Slovenia (23. - 24.4.1992), Druzba za raziskave v cestni in prometni stroki Slovenije, Forschungsgesellschaft für das Verkehrs- und Straßenwesen im ÖIAV.


Campari, I. (1992): Human Impacts on Costal Regions: An Integrated conceptual Framework. EGIS 92, Munich, Germany, March 23-26, 1992, EGIS Foundation.


Buyong, T. and W. Kuhn (1992): "Local Adjustment for Measurement-Based Cadastral Systems." Journal of Surveying Engineering and Land Information Systems 52(1): 25-33.


Barrera, R., M. J. Egenhofer, et al. (1992): Robust Evaluation of Spatial Queries. 5th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, IGU Commision on GIS.
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1991 back

Smith, T. R. and A. Frank (1991): "Very Large Spatial Databases: Report from the Specialist Meeting." Journal of Visual Languages 1(2): 291-309.


Petersen, J. and W. Kuhn (1991): Defining GIS Data Structures by Sketching Examples. ACSM/ASPRS Annual Convention, Baltimore, MD.
(download not available)

Nunes, J. (1991): Geographic Space as a Set of Concrete Geographical Entities. Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space: An Introduction. D. M. Mark and A. U. Frank. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic: 9-34.
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Nemura, A. a. E. P.-C. (1991): Water Quality Benefits Assessment of the Combined Sewer Overflow Abatement in the Tidal Anacostia River. Washington, D.C., USA, Metroplitan Washington Council of Governments.


Mark, D. and A. Frank (1991): Language, Cognitive Science, and Geograpic Information Systems, NCGIA.


Kuhn, W. (1991): Requirements for Land Information Standards. Environment and Land Information (International FIG Symposium). E. Hoeflinger. Innsbruck, Verlag Konrad Wittwer: 35-40.
(download not available)


Kuhn, W. (1991): Let metaphors overcome their WIMP image! NCGIA Research Initiative 13: User Interfaces for GIS
Specialist Meeting Position Papers, New York.

Clearly, metaphors are important for the design and use of computer systems. It is still largely unclear and controversial, however, what exact role(s) they play. My position is that their role has largely been underestimated and misunderstood so far. Cognitive linguistics [Johnson 1987, Lakoff 1987, Lakoff and Johnson 1980] suggests an understanding of interface metaphors which is broader and deeper than the current view, which essentially treats metaphors as a matter of WIMPs (windows, icons, menus and pointing devices).
This paper is motivated by the observation that metaphors impact user interface design practice, but are virtually absent from design methodologies in general [Erickson 1990] and for GIS in particular [Gould and McGranaghan 1990]. There is a clear need for a better basis of theoretical and empirical work in this area. Section two of the paper is a rough sketch of a proposed new understanding of interface metaphors; section three lists some generic metaphors inherent in the design and use of computer systems; section four contains some input toward a research agenda on interface metaphors in GIS.

Kuhn, W. and M. Egenhofer (1991): "CHI'90 Workshop on Visual Interfaces to Geometry." SIGCHI Bulletin 23(2): 46-55.


Kuhn, W. and M. Egenhofer (1991): Visual Interfaces to Geometry: Report on a Two Day Workshop at CHI'90, NCGIA.


Kuhn, W. (1991): German GIS/LIS Standards. Report on Visits to Germany in November 1990 and March 1991, NCGIA.


Kuhn, W., J. Jackson, et al. (1991): "Specifying Metaphors Algebraically." SIGCHI Bulletin 23(1): 58-60.


Kuhn, W. and A. U. Frank (1991): A Formalization of Metaphors and Image-Schemas in User Interfaces. Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space. D. M. Mark and A. U. Frank. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers: 419-434.
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Sound engineering approaches to user interface design require the formalization of key interaction concepts, one of them being metaphor. Work on interface metaphors has, however, been largely non-formal so far. The few existing formal theories of metaphor have been developed in the context of natural language understanding, learning, or reasoning. We propose to formalize interface metaphors by algebraic specifications. This approach provides a comprehensive formalization for the essential aspects of metaphorical user interfaces. Specifically, metaphor domains are being formalized by algebras, metaphorical mappings by morphisms, and image-schemas by categories. The paper explains these concepts and the approach, using examples of spatial and spatializing metaphors.

Kuhn, W. (1991): Are Displays Maps or Views? ACSM-ASPRS Auto-Carto 10, Baltimore, Maryland, American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.
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Frank, A. U. (1991): Beyond Query Languages for Geographic Databases: Data Cubes and Maps. Int. Workshop on DBMS's for Geographical Applications, Capri, Italy, May 16-17, 1991.
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Frank, A. U. (1991): Qualitative Spatial Reasoning about Cardinal Directions. Auto-Carto 10
ACSM-ASPRS, Baltimore.
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Frank, A. (1991): Design of Cartographic Databases. Advances in Cartograpy. J. C. Muller, Elsevier: 15-45.
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Before an intelligent discussion of cartographic databases can start, we have to clarify the necessary
terminology: "What is a cartographic database and how is this notion related to other similar terms,
GIS in particular?" We stress the importance of the database concept and detail some technical
aspects. The contents of a map can be conceptualized in different forms, from a purely graphical viewpoint to a highly structured collection of data, each set of concepts carrying with it its appropriate set of operations. After establishing the differences between GIS and cartographic data base, we
then go on to explore potential relations between a GIS and a cartographic database. Of special
interest is how a GIS and a cartographic database for the same region are related and how one can
benefit from the other by establishing links between multiple representations of the same real objects. Technically speaking, the cartographic database is a `materialized view' of the GIS; therefore methods like triggers and active database concepts need to be explored for their suitability. The major
problems in designing cartographic data structures are a lack of understanding of the structure of
maps and the process that produces them, and the lack of model for map reading. The linkage
between data structures and map structure is stressed and research topics outlined.

Frank, A. U. and D. M. Mark, Eds. (1991): Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space. NATO ASI Series D. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

This book presents an edited collection of 28 articles by participants in a NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Spain during July 1990. The editors wrote the preface and introduction to the book, and extended introductions to each of the six major sections of the book. Five chapters were authored by NCGIA personnel, and are listed separately in this document, under Initiative 2 (see Egenhofer, 1991; Freundschuh, 1991; McGranaghan, 1991) or Initiative 13 (see Gould, 1991; Kuhn and Frank, 1991).

Frank, A. (1991): Requisitos de un Sistema Administrador de Bases de Datos para un SIG. III Conferencia Latinoamericana sobre Sistemas de Informacion Geografica. - Por un Desarrollo Sustentable en America Latina y el Caribe., Viña del Mar, Chile.
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Frank, A. and M. Goodchild (1991): Two Perspectives on Geographic Data Modeling, NCGIA.


Frank, A., M. Egenhofer, et al. (1991): "A Perspective on GIS Technology in the Nineties." Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 57(11): 1431-1436.
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Frank, A. and D. M. Mark (1991): Language Issues for GIS. Geographical Information Systems: Principles and Applications. D. J. Maguire, M. F. Goodchild and D. W. Rhind. London, Longman Scientific and Technical. 1: 147-163.
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This chapter reviews the major issues involving language and GIS, and thus provides a summary of Initiative 2 for a broad audience of GIS users and researchers. After an introduction, the chapter first discusses cognitive science, especially cognitive linguistics, and then describes the mathematical representation of geographic space in GIS. Query languages, especially with respect to spatial data, are reviewed. Natural language issues discussed include natural language queries and commands, including a discourse model of human-computer interaction; input of geographic data to GIS in text form; and natural language output.

Frank, A. (1991): Three Years of Activity at the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis in the United States of America. FIG Symposium, Umwelt und Landinformation, Innsbruck, Österreich.
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Frank, A. (1991): Qualitative Spatial Reasoning about Cardinal Directions. ACSM-ASPRS Auto-Carto 10, Baltimore, Maryland, American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.
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Frank, A. (1991): Qualitative Spatial Reasoning with Cardinal Directions. 7. Österreichische Artificial-Intelligence-Tagung, Wien, Österreich, Springer Verlag.
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Frank, A. (1991): Properties of Geographic Data: Requirements for Spatial Access Methods. Advances in Spatial Databases. O. Günter and H.-J. Schek. Heidelberg-Berlin, Springer Verlag. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 525: 225-234.
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Spatial access methods and the corresponding data structures, necessary to achieve the expected
performance of Geographic Information Systems, are currently a prominent topic for research in
spatial databases. Their performance is influenced by the properties of spatial data. This paper details the specific properties of spatial data in a GIS. It concentrates on GISs that store data describing objects with distinct identity and does exclude image and remote sensing databases, whose
characteristics are very different, from consideration. We estimate approximate values for the
parameters of some of the properties described and give measures for the size of GIS data. The
results can be used for selection of a spatial access method for a GIS. They are also useful for the
optimization of spatial access methods to respond to the specific requirements of a GIS.

Egenhofer, M. and A. Frank (1991): Query Languages for Geographical Information, NCGIA.


Egenhofer, M. J., W. Kuhn, et al. (1991): Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space, NCGIA Santa Barbara, CA.

The three papers contained in this report address different aspects of the problem of formalizing human communication about geographic space. The three included papers are from the book arising from a NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Spain in July 1990 (see Mark and Frank, 1991). The papers are listed separately in this section (Egenhofer, 1991; McGranaghan, 1991) or in the Initiative 13 section (Kuhn and Frank, 1991) of this report.

Egenhofer, M. J. and W. Kuhn (1991): Visualizing Spatial Query Results: The Limitations of SQL. IFIP WG 2.6 Second working Conference on Visual Database Systems, Budapest, Ungarn.
(download not available)


Catedra, M. (1991): "Through the Door": A View of Space from an Anthropological Perspective. Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space: An Introduction. D. M. Mark and A. U. Frank. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic: 53-64.
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Car, A. (1991): "Optimalno koristenje prometnica na podrucju RZ Alpe-Jadran pomocu automobilskog informacijskog sistema (AIS)." Geodetski list 45(7 - 9): 249 - 264.


Car, A. (1991): Optimale Nutzung der Verkehrswege im Alpen-Adria Raum mittels eines Automobilinformationssystems (AIS) - Fortsetzung, Technische Universität Graz, ARGE Alpen-Adria.


Car, A. (1991): Automobilinformationssysteme (AIS): Theorie - Überblick - Eine praktische Lösung. Grazer Geoinformatiktage '91, Graz, Austria, Bartelme Norbert.


Campari, I. (1991): Some Notes on Geographic Information Systems: The Relationship Between their Practical Application and their Theoretical Evolution. Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space. D. M. Mark and F. A.U. Dordrecht, Kluwer: 35-44.
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Buyong, T. B., A. Frank, et al. (1991): "A Conceptual Model of Measurement-Based Multipurpose Cadastral." Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association URISA 3(2): 35-49.
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Bruegger, B. and W. Kuhn (1991): Multiple Topological Representations, NCGIA.


Barrera, R., A. Frank, et al. (1991): Temporal Relations in Geographic Information Systems: A Workshop at the University of Maine. Orono, NCGIA.
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Barrera, R., A. Frank, et al. (1991): "Temporal Relations in Geographic Information Systems: A Workshop at the University of Maine." SIGMOD Record 20(3): 85-91.


Ann, T. a. N., Adrienne and Elissavet Pontikakis-Coyne (1991): Water Quality Benefits Assessment of the Combined Sewer Overflow Abatement in the Tidal Anacostia River. Data Report. Washington, D.C., USA, Metroplitan Washington Council of Governments.


Al-Taha, K. and A. U. Frank (1991): Temporal GIS Keeps Data Current. 1991-1992 International GIS Sourcebook: 384-388.
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A GIS is not just a collection of maps stored in a computer, but a database that should correctly model a particular region of the world. Since the world is changing continuously, GIS applications require that the data collection to be updated. Every GIS is, by definition, a database that manages spatial data and includes facilities to update its data so it continues to reflect the current situation. But only a GIS that includes “time” and “space” in its model of reality is often called a “temporal GIS,” which contains the current information and keeps the data that describe the previous states and when they were applicable. A temporal GIS must answer “when-and-where-” questions, such as: “what were the boundaries of New York City in June, 1908?” “Where were the forest areas in New England in 1880,” or “which properties owned John Doe in Baltimore from August 1981 to June 1988.” When GISs include time, they can really demonstrate the enormous advantage of a database that models reality compared to a conventional collection of printed maps.


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