DIRECTORY OF THE EUROPEAN ARCHITECTURAL ENDOSCOPY ASSOCIATION

SECOND EDITION

1995


FOREWORD TO THE SECOND EDITION

In this edition another five new members are presented:

Any rectifications will be entered in the third edition.

Bob Martens Vienna, August 1995


AUSTRALIA

ARCHITECTURE WORKSHOP

Contact persons: John Neiroti, Ross Thorne

Mailing address: University of Sydney, Dept. of Architecture G04, NSW 2006, Australia

Visiting address: 148 City Road, Darlington

Telephone: +61-2-692-3471 Telefax: +61-2-6923-855 eMail: ...

Description of the equipment: Rietveld "Urbanoscope" purchased from The Netherlands in 1976 and set up in 1977 for black and white video recording. Conversion of color occurred in about 1981 but there has always been a problem with lighting - i.e. obtaining sufficient illumination for the color camera attached to the endoscope. The system is now being updated to use a miniature CCD Camera without the tube endoscope.

Description of previous endoscopical work: Most endoscopical work has been for the architectural profession. - to provide a human eye level view within models for showing to clients and community groups. E.g. a design for a street being converted to a mall; the National Parliament House Design in its landscaped setting.

Description of special working techniques: It has not been so much a matter of techniques but problems, particularly with lighting; and not side lighting affecting the construction of the models. Videoshots had to be of short duration with constant changing of light positions to suit. This time consuming task prevented its use in teaching architecture.

Remarks: The loss of light up the endoscope to the video camera has been a major source of trouble. Where as a battery of high powered color corrected mercury vapour lamps provided 500 lumens on the model below, it was useless for video recording. The new CCD mini camera, without endoscope only requires one 40 watt fluorescent tube above the model.


AUSTRIA

DEPARTMENT FOR SPATIAL SIMULATION (FULL-SCALE LAB)

World wide web address: http://raumsim.tuwien.ac.at

Contact person: Dr. Bob Martens

Mailing and visiting address: Technische Universitaet Wien, Department for Spatial Simulation, Karlsplatz 13/2561, A-1040 Wien, Austria

Telephone: +43-1-58801-0 eMail: b.martens@tuwien.ac.at

Description of the equipment: Initial investments were made in 1989. Present equipment: 2 Olympus Endoscopes (58¡ and 80¡) with OTV S2 Minature CCD- Camera (so required C-Mount Adapter available); Cambo UBS1-Pillar Standard; VHS and S-VHS recording; Windowlight with 5000 W; Kobold Lights each 2x1250 W; Apple PowerMacintosh 9500 with Miro DC20 Digitizing-Card, Canon CLC 10 Colorprinter/Scanner.

Description of previous endoscopical work: Implementation so far exclusively within designing exercises of students. The equipment is suited for still pictures and simple sequences, the use of which is aimed at the specialized field of interior architecture

Description of special working techniques: Individual pictures are digitized by means of special graphics-cards and are subsequently processed with the picture processing software Photoshop. Sequences are shot as digital "Quicktime-movies".

Remarks: Installation of a mechanical plant - a so-called Camera Rig making for control of movement sequences - is planned for the long-term.


CZECH REPUBLIC

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL MODELLING

Contact person: Prof.Ing.arch. Josef Posp'sil, Ing. Daniel Skarda

Mailing and visiting address: Czech Technical University of Prague (CVUT), Faculty of Architecture, Th‡kurova 7, 166 34 Praha 6, Czech Republic

Telephone: +42-02-24354872 Telefax: +42-02-24310573 eMail: ...

Description of the equipment: Initial investments were made in 1987. Present equipment (as of 1995):

a.) Visual scanning equipment consisting of a relatoscope for students use (manipulation area 1,5x1,5 m); a relatoscope for professional use (manipulation area 5x1,8x1 m); a movable carrier operated by a set of stepping motors; optical devices (Wolf- and Weinberger technoscopes); Panasonic color cameras and video editing devices; a small motion picture TV camera with interchangeable lens; PC 486 computers.

b.) Production equipment consisting of computer controlled form cutter for Computer Aided Modelling (Roland CAMM-2).

Description of previous endoscopical work: - continuous participation in architectural design (students and professionals) - comparison and evaluation of architectural work and space - cooperation with the City Council of Prague and other municipal authorities

Description of special working techniques: Concentration on the cooperation in the fields of real modelling work, visual simulation and computer graphics. A model is recorded on video with the help of relatoscopic devices and digitized on a computer. The result is evaluated by means of CAD programmes. The CAMM-2 automatic production of the newly adapted parts of a designed building is facilitated by means of a control unit, which works with the diskette record of drawings presented in a developed shape. A final model is then re- evaluated with the help of endoscopical devices and drawings are produced.


DENMARK

VIDEOLABORATORIET (LABORATORY FOR VIDEO SIMULATION)

Contact persons: Arch. Per Marstrand Holm, Arch. Svend Erik Soefelt

Mailing and visiting address: Aarhus School of Architecture, Department of Visual Communication, Norreport 20, DK-8000 Arhus-C, Denmark

Telephone: +45-86-13 08 22 Telefax: +45-86-13 06 45 eMail: ...

Description of the equipment: The Laboratory consists of a movable camerarig on rails (remote controlled) and linked to a video recording system. An attached computer system allows for later graphic manipulation. Various cameraoptics make different "takes" possible, depending on the scale of the models. The camera covers an area of 450x80x60 cm (LxWxH). The control of the rig and camera is done from a centrally located control panel and the picture and the movement are registered on a control monitor before taping. All monitored takes can simultaneously have objects or persons cromakeyed in, as well as "on location" takes of real sites. The equipment in the lab makes later real sound, music or voicemixing possible on a 2-canal player/recorder and editing system. The whole system is at the moment being prepared for an interactive computer/video extension, which will make electronic screen manipulation possible via CAD programs and various analog-digital picture screen information systems.

Description of previous endoscopical work: (1) as a media for the study and presentation of student projects (approx. 50% rig-time); (2) as a research tool for studies of architectural and urban design image related questions; (3) as a tool for the study and presentation of architectural models or design sequences in models of various urban contexts. All productions ordered and paid for by local governments or private consultancy groups; (4) as a tool for the presentation of scenographic projects for TV or theatre productions. Work ordered and paid for by local public TV-stations or theatres; (5) as a media for production of commercial TV-spots of various products, often without any relation to the architectural field.

Description of special working techniques: Prior to any video production meetings with "clients" are held about (the aim of presentation, type of viewers and level of realism resp. scale). The studio can also offer to partake in production of needed "props".


DENMARK

AUDIO-VISUELT LABORATORIUM

Contact person: Arch. Ronnie Engstroem, M.A.A.

Mailing and visiting address: The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Havnegade 37 D, DK-1058 Copenhangen K., Denmark

Telephone: +45-33 12 68 60 Telefax: +45-33 12 75 98 eMail: ...

Description of the equipment: Servo controlled camera rig equipped with Panasonic CCTV-CL 352 video camera, special optics/periscope lens; 400 x 180 x 45 cm (X, Y, Z). Max. speed: 15 cm/second, 50¡ for pan; Video recorder; lighting - decoration facilities. Editing: Two SONY VO 5850 P recorders, editor with special effects, graphic camera and computer for text and drawing transfer.

Description of previous endoscopical work: (1) Development of simulation methods and technology concerning visualization of architecture, engineering and planning projects; (2) Solving problems in connection with arrangement of building and planning projects; (3) Participation in implementation of new technology in training and further training.

Description of special working techniques: ...

Remarks: The lab is building up a basis for commercial earning with reference to the fact to be able to finance replacement and purchase of new equipment in the future.


FINLAND

VIDEOSTUDIO OTANIEMI

Contact person: Arch. Petri Siitonen

Mailing and visiting address: Helsinki University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Otakaari 1 X, SF-02150 Espoo, Finland. Telephone: +358-0-451 2056 Telefax: +358-0-451 3960

Mailing address 2: Tampere University of Technology, Department of Architecture, P.O.Box 699, SF-33101 Tampere, Finland.
Telephone: +358 3 365 3223 Telefax: +358 3 365 3206 (telefax of the department of Architecture)
eMail: petri.siitonen@softmodel.fi

Description of the equipment: Henke-Sass-Wolf Endoscope; Betacam SP Videorecorders. We are currently constructing a computer driven motion control for the endoscope camera. It will have all six axes independently moving, several interfaces and artificial sunlight simulation. Model size max. 4x3 meters.

Description of previous endoscopical work: Shot stills and video were done with a simple stative; "sliding" or revolving model table was used to do walkthroughs.

Description of special working techniques: Video chromakey and superimpose techniques are combined with endoscopy camerashots. As a source both computer graphics and handdrawings were used.


FINLAND

VTT BUILDING TECHNOLOGY, VIDEO AND MULTIMEDIA STUDIO

Contact person: Av-producer Pekka Ervamaa

Mailing address: VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Building Technology, PL 18011, SF-02044 Espoo, Finland

Visiting address: Betonimiehenkuja 3, Fin-02210 Espoo

Telephone: +358-0-4566272 Telefax: +358-0-4567006 eMail: Pekka.Ervamaa@vtt.fi

Description of the equipment: Storz rigid endoscope; fixed mounted CCD videocamera; scale model on the stand can be freely moved during the videorecordings using manually operated motor; Betacam SP video editing system (with a camera for normal video production); Newsmatte (for blue screen); Macintosh Fx (Hardware: 1 Gb hard disk, 650 MO harddisk, scanner and 35 mm slide scanner, NuVista videocard / Software: MacroMind Director, Adobe Photoshop, MacroMind 3D, Canvas); PC-computer (Software: AutoDesk 3D Studio); Still video cameras.

Description of previous endoscopical work: Scale model videorecordings have been made of scale models historical cities (for museums), of extensive building projects like swimming-halls and nuclear power stations. Earlier one of the main activities were the Finnish building projects in Saudi-Arabia and Kuwait. Endoscopy is just one of the LaboratoryÕs video production activities. Several researches were published concerning the use of endoscopy in scale model photography and video recording. Due to the depression of the building industry, commissions are reduced.

Description of special working techniques: Recently we mostly have used integrated methods combining video, still pictures, architects' drawings of the architects etc. Developmental work will be made for rendering and better integration of several visual techniques (f.i. video and CAD).


FINLAND

SAD-LABORATORY

Contact persons: Ing. Ilkka Alavalkama

Mailing address: Tampere University of Technology, Department of Architecture, P.O.Box 699, SF-33101 Tampere, Finland

Visiting address: Tuomiokirkonkatu 19, SF-33100 Tampere

Telephone: +358 3 365 3224, Telefax: +358 3 365 3206 (telefax of the department of Architecture), eMail:...

Description of the equipment: Computer controlled camera rig (2m x 3m); Endoscope connected to CCD- camera with special mount; S-VHS recording and editing; Video frame grabbing, processing & feedback with Targa/Vista computer boards; 386/486 computers with jet printer; Hand-held endoscope + miniature video camera combination.

Description of previous endoscopical work: (1) camera rig used by students in every-day study works; (2) B&W endoscopic video prints from student projects; (3) endoscopical video and photography used on all stages of studies; (4) 35 mm photography of architectural models (PC optics and endoscopy); (5) Edited videofilms of student projects (endoscopy); (6) Endoscopy/PC-optic photo/video projects for scientific and commercial use

Description of special working techniques: (1) Hand-held video-endoscope used by teachers (basics of architecture, urban planning, etc.); (2) Computer controlled track smoothening drive system for video camera; (3) Automatic variable tracking video player for "speed processing" by video edit; (4) Near field PC-photography used as high resolution photographic system; (5) Sun simulation for urban planning.


GERMANY

AUDIOVISUELLE MODELLSIMULATION

Contact person: Priv.-Doz.Dr.-Ing. Mathias Hirche

Mailing and visiting address: Technische Universitaet Berlin, ZID-Audiovisuelle Modellsimulation, Strasse des 17. Juni 150-152, D-10623 Berlin, Germany

Telephone: +49-30-31425231 Telefax: +49-30-31421112 eMail: ...

Description of the equipment: Several different endoscopes with moving system (camera rig); Kobold Lighting installation 4000W-2500W-1200W; U-Matic SP / Betacam SP with editing installation; AppleMacintosh Computer with Nuvista Card, network with Indigo Computer.

Description of previous endoscopical work: About 20-30 films and 100 Slideseries

Description of special working techniques: Beyond endoscopy also combination with rendering and animation


GERMANY

MEDIENLABOR

Contact person: Prof.Dr.-Ing. Manfred Walz

Mailing and visiting address: Fachhochschule Dortmund, Fachbereich 1 - Architektur, August-Schmidt-Strasse 1, D-44227 Dortmund

Telephone: +49-231-755443314 Telefax: +49-231-7554466 eMail: ..

Description of the equipment: --- (only in german language available)

Description of previous endoscopical work: --- (only in german language available)

Description of special working techniques: --- (only in german language available)


GERMANY

MODELLSIMULATIONSLABOR

Contact person: Dr.-Ing. Egon Maase, Dipl.-Ing. R. Franke

Mailing address: Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Gebaeudelehre und Entwerfen, Mommsenstrasse 13, D-01602 Dresden

Visiting address: George-BŠhr-Str., Beyer-Bau, Zi. 168, D-01602 Dresden

Telephone: +49-351-463-5083, 463-2210, -463-4796 Telefax: +49-463-2395 eMail: ...

Description of the equipment: (1) A miniature video camera (17 mm diameter x 48 mm); S-VHS- recorder; computer controlled moving system 2x3x1 m (x,y,z) with speed control; the route through the model is furthermore programmable by a computer steerable by a joy-stick.

(2) PC-Station with scanner and video-printer; software for image- and video-processing.

Description of previous endoscopical work: The endoscopical station is used as a tool for: - supporting the design process in architecture; - project presentation in general; - the review of projects designed by architectural students; - the generation of perspectives.

Description of special working techniques: The process of simulation is combined with the design of architecture and the construction of a model.


GERMANY

ARBEITSGRUPPE UMWELTSIMULATION (ARGUS)

Contact persons: Prof. Wolfgang Thomas

Mailing and visiting address: Universitaet Gesamthochschule Essen, Fachbereich 10, Fachgebiet Staedtebau, Universitaetsstrasse 15, D-45141 Essen, Germany

Telephone: +0201-183 2799 or 2802 Telefax: +0201-183 2800 eMail: ...

Description of the equipment: Electronically controlled simulation unit (2,5m x 2,5m; since 1988); S- VHS video-camera and video-recorder; Video-printer; Photo-equipment; Different endoscopes; Several daylight-spots; CAD workstation for supporting tasks; Modelling facilities. If required, this can be supplied by the professional equipment of our film studio (Medienzentrum at the University of Essen), e.g. the S-VHS-camera may be replaced by a professional U-Matic-camera.

Description of previous endoscopical work: ¥ "I'd like to see that before..." - Visual Simulation in Urban Design and Decision-Making; video film, 1983 ¥ The "Werkbund"-Housing Project; a visual simulation of a special housing concept, video film, 1984 ¥ "To draw a line and know what it means..."- the Role of Endoscopy in Teaching Urban Planning; video film, 1986 ¥ Visual Simulation, a report of our researches on theories and methods of visual simulation, 1987 ¥ Plesser Park, Essen-Steele - a Documentation of the Application of Endoscopy to a Students' Design Project, 1988 ¥ Geldern-Focus On the Market-Place; video film, 1992 ¥ Oberhausen "Center" - Marketstreet Under One Roof, Implications, Aims, In-sights; video film, 1992

Description of special working techniques: Through the cooperation with the film studio at the University of Essen, we have got the opportunity of using the best film techniques according to the special objects and aims of a project, e.g. outdoor filming, cutting and so on.

Remarks: Our simulation unit is planned to get digitally controlled.


GERMANY

SIMULATIONSLABOR

Contact person: Prof. Antero Markelin, Dipl.-Ing. Arpad Pfeilsticker

Mailing and visiting address: Universitaet Stuttgart, Architektur und Stadtplanung, Simulationslabor am Staedtebaulichen Institut (Prof. Antero Markelin), Keplerstrasse 11, D- 70174 Stuttgart, Germany

Telephone: +49-711-121 3374 Telefax: +49-711-121 3225 eMail: markelin@vince.architektur.uni-stuttgart.de

Description of the equipment: Full moving endoscope-system 2,5 x 4,0 m (special fabrication of the firm Horny Stuttgart); Stortz 0¡ / Stortz 90¡ / Photo Perspectar 90¡ endoscopes; Kobold DLf 400 SES Daylight system; Videosystem: U-matic low band / S-VHS / VHS; Audio-visual-slide system with up to 16 projectors (Kodak Ectapro 7000 with BŠssgen control unit); Pentax LX cameras.

Description of previous endoscopical work: New focal point of research is the field of artificial light simulation with the endoscope in urban space. The importance of lighting design for urban planning does not receive adequate attention at the moment. The aim is to develop control-instruments to improve the planning in this field.

Description of special working techniques: The analogous simulation of architectural and urban models is still an important device for decision processes in planning. Besides a variety of simulations from single frame to audio-vision-slide shows and videos, the Simulation Laboratory ("Simulationslabor") produces also 3-dimensional simulations of architectural and urban models. A wide range of topics from architecture and urban design is covered by these means. The results are presented in form of an audio-vision-slide show as well as a video or 16mm film.


GERMANY

HOCHSCHULE FUER ARCHITEKTUR UND BAUWESEN WEIMAR

Contact person: Arch.Dipl.-Ing. Klaus Juergen Gelbricht

Mailing address: Hochschule fuer Architektur und Bauwesen Weimar, Institut Staedtebau, Geschwister-Scholl-Strasse 545, D-99423 Weimar, Germany

Visiting address: Coudraystrasse 13, Zi. 105-106, Weimar

Telephone: +49-3643-738851 or 501328 Telefax: +49-3643-501329 eMail: ...

Description of the equipment: --- (only in german language available)

Description of previous endoscopical work: --- (only in german language available)

Description of special working techniques: --- (only in german language available)


JAPAN

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING

Contact person: Prof.Dr. Ryozo Ohno

Mailing and visiting address: Tokyo Institute of Technology, Dept. of Human-Environment Systems, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226 Japan

Telephone: +81-45-924-5613 Telefax: +81-45-922-3840 eMail: rohno@nc.titech.ac.jp

Description of the equipment: (1) A model-scope which is attachable to 35mm photo camera and TV camera. (2) A small CCD camera (17mm diameter x 48mm ) supported by a gantry and control system operated by a personal computer. This "walk simulator" allow a subject to go through physical models of building and landscapes with horizontal and vertical movement and look around using a "joy-stick" as viewing a scene projected on 100 inch CCTV screen.

Description of previous endoscopical work: The model-scope was used to make a series of slides which served as stimuli with which subjects rated sequential landscapes of different housing neighborhood.

Description of special working techniques: The control system of the "walk simulator" records all signals generated by the "joystick" every 0.01 second, thus the exact position within the model space and viewing direction at given moment can be stored in a computer memory. This data can be used to analyze subject's behavior as well as to reproduce the movement. In our current research which deal with way-finding behavior, amount of information obtained from the surrounding environmental surfaces is attempted to calculated using such data. I would suggest to use an endoscopy not only for presenting visual simulation but also for generating data to analyze human behavior in simulated space.


THE NETHERLANDS

LABORATORY FOR ARTS AND TECHNIQUES OF VISUALIZATION

Contact person: Prof. Jan van der Does

Mailing address: Delft University of Technology, P.O.Box 5043, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands

Visiting address: Berlageweg 1, 2600 GA Delft

Telephone: +31-15-78 4878 Telefax: +31-15-78 3740 eMail: ...

Description of the equipment: Different endoscopes; Betacam SP and S-VHS; Scan Converter YEM CVS 980; 486 PCÕS and Silicon Graphics.

Description of previous endoscopical work: Enthescope is used for research in visual communication techniques in 1990 (research report "Information en Simulation") In 1993 we are preparing a new research "The Art of Representation". The enthescope plays an important role in this matter

Description of special working techniques: (1) handdrawing in colour and in perspective view; (2) computer rendering on video; (3) enthescope techniques on video; (4) model-making, scale 1:100 and 1:200.

Remarks: The lab has special interest concerning the exchange of results in research about importance and value of visual communication in architectural simulation.


THE NETHERLANDS

ENTHESCOOP

Contact person: Ben Elfrink, Rob van Wendel de Jode

Mailing address: Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Visiting address: Den Dolech 2, Eindhoven

Telephone: +31-40-479111 Telefax: +31-40-452432 eMail: J.B.M.Lemmens@bwk.tue.nl

Description of the equipment: HSW-Relatoscope Type REL 11 (60¡) and Video camera with C-mount adapter; Wolf Relatoscope (l=40cm / 60¡) and Olympus OM 2 foto camera with 120 mm.

Description of previous endoscopical work: Mainly studentwork; Presentation of final thesis/designwork.

Description of special working techniques: ---


THE NETHERLANDS

VIASCOOP

Contact person: Drs.ing. Jan B. Hartman

Mailing address: Ministry of Transport, Transportation and Traffic Research Division, Grontmij Consulting Engineers, P.O. box 3111, 3502 GC Utrecht, The Netherlands

Visiting address: Groenewoudsedijk 2a, 3502 BG Utrecht

Telephone: +31-30-931841 Telefax: +31-30-947314 eMail: ..

Description of the equipment: The Viascoop is a computercontrolled road-scene simulator and has following components: a steel frame, 8 x 4 x 2 meters, in which scalemodels are positioned; a camera and a periscope, mounted to the ceiling of the frame; a sensor that maintains a constant eye-height; a unit to control speed, course, eye-height, etc.; a monitor, showing the image from a position in the scalemodel; a computer to calculate coordinates and positions; video-recording (U-matic, Betacam, VHS); 12 lamps of 2000 watt each.

Description of previous endoscopical work: The Viascoop was introduced in 1988. Since then a number a road-scene research and visualization activities have been undertaken. The Viascoop is used for various projects other than road-design, e.g. architecture, video- and televisionprogrammes, expositions and museums. Goal is to give advice on improvement of the visual quality of the road design.

Description of special working techniques: The Viascoop is a road-scene simulator and should not be mistaken for a driving simulator. A validation research showed that the way people "drive" in the Viascoop is in no way comparable to the way they drive on a real road, with actual traffic, a complex driving task and all sorts of feedback.

Remarks: The Ministry of Transport (Rijkswaterstaat) owns the Viascoop. Research and advice in which the Viascoop plays a role is privatised to a private company, Grontmij Consulting Engineers.


RUSSIA

LABORATORY OF VIDEO SYSTEMS

Contact person: Prof. Michael Matalasov

Mailing and visiting address: Moscow Architectural Institute, 11 Rozdestvenka str., 103754 Moscow K- 31, Russia

Telephone: +7-095-9213982 Telefax: +7-095-9211240 eMail: ...

Description of the equipment: A Number of special tele-installations on the base of medical endoscopical and special optical tubes (practical use); mini S-VHS - videostudio with a IBM-PC/AT-486 (Introduction stage).

Description of previous endoscopical work: Instructing students, postgraduates, teachers, architects and designers how to use in designing spatial videomodelling equipment on the base of endoscopical tubes. Scientific and research work on the modernization of the equipment and the working techniques (a number of patents is available).

Description of special working techniques: Formation of static videoseries (including stereo photographs from low points of shooting) and dynamic videoseries (videotape recording) with the use of small-scale models and the suitable tele-installations on the base of endoscopical tubes of different types.


RUSSIA

KOSTRAMA INSTITUTE OF BUILDING

Contact person: Prof. Juri Prokofiev

Mailing and visiting address: Kostrama Institute of Building, Ul. Nalitsnaya 30 kv, 61199226 St. Petersburg, Russia

Telephone: Telefax: eMail- ...

Description of the equipment: --- (only in russian language available)

Description of previous endoscopical work: --- (only in russian language available)

Description of special working techniques: --- (only in russian language available)


SLOVAKIA

LABORATORY OF SPATIAL ENDOSCOPY

Contact person: Dipl.Ing.arch.Dr. Peter Kardos

Mailing and visiting address: Slovak Technical University Bratislava, Department of Urban-Architectural Complexes / Faculty of Architecture, Nam. Slobody 19, SK-812 45 Bratislava 1

Telephone: ++42-7-369-281; ++42-7-396-261 (Lab) Telefax: ++427-321 533 EMail: ...

Description of the equipment: Computer controlled interactive simulation lab-unit, where a movable camera-rig with endoscope covers an area of 105x85 cm. Since 1988 the unit was equipped with a medical endoscope resp. a b/w video system. Present equipment for full-moving simulation consists of an Olympus Endoscope M 100 with Grundig CCD Camera MKC 312; lighting installation 4x1100 W; VHS recording and editing system; a microcomputerunit to eye-height, speed and course control (all simulation operations are with PC reversable); a sensor to maintain a constant eye-height level for different model-scales; electonical equipment like power computer PC-AT 486 with polychromatic and monochromatic graphical visualization units, digitizer for colour signal PAL, NTSC, videorecorder; Olympus camera SC-35 with AK-1M Adapter; support arm with tripod.

Description of previous endoscopical work:
- Study and presentation of student projects (1:500 , 1:400 and 1:200 models)
- Verification of ideas for compositional design completing of urban space
- Evaluation of spatial dynamic experiences in urban design
- Acting as alternative media in research of urban space

Description of special working techniques:
- Endoscopical dynamic sequences of artificial urban models on video.
- Digital image processing on program equipment for graphical visualization, for basic digitalization, coding and recording images on to HDD and for composition of dynamic image sequences.
- Still pictures and photo-sequences with PC-Video Kit and with 35 mm camera.
- Stereo-slide sequences of virtual or simulated urban space.
- Workshop for small-scale urban modelmaking.


SWEDEN

STUDIO FOR VISUALIZATION AND COMMUNICATIONS

Contact person: Prof. Arne Branzell

Mailing and visiting address: Chalmers University of Technology, Dept. of Architecture (Studio CTH-A), S-412 96 Gšteborg, Sweden

Telephone: +46-31-7722 415 Telefax: +46-31-425807; +46-31-7722 371 eMail: branzell@arch.chalmers.se

Description of the equipment: Endoscope with video and Olympus camera equipment; Slide show installations with 13 projectors on 180 degrees screen controlled by Dataton equipment; Apple MacIntosh computers; Video projector (4x6m); S-VHS video and editing facilities; various tools and equipment for design purposes; near access to full scale laboratory (300 m2) wood and metal workshops, graphic studio and CAD laboratory.

Description of previous endoscopical work: Endoscope has been mostly used for photo sequences.

Description of special working techniques: We study different combinations with old and new media, i.e. manual handsketches and photo, CAD, video and slide-shows. Best simulation results have been achieved with the 180 degree slide-show dataton- controlled with fading dissolver.

Remarks: Main interest in techniques and methods of assisting to visualize ideas in the beginning of a project. Actual research concerns space experience and possibilities to visualize cause-effect, i.e. to complement the physical representation in design drawings with graphic notations indicating resulting space experience. Planned research: Possibilities to visualize soundscape.


SWEDEN

ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIT

Contact persons: Dr. Rikard KŸller, Dr. Jan Janssens

Mailing address: Lund Institute of Technology, School of Architecture, Environmental Psychology Unit, Box 118, S-22 100 Lund, Sweden

Visiting address: Sšlvegatan 24, Lund

Telephone: +46-46-107 604 Telefax: +46-46-107 603 eMail:

Description of the equipment: The equipment exists of a 5,5 x 2,5 m overhead suspension system, permanently mounted in the ceiling of the laboratory, bearing a television camera with a upsidedown relatoscope. A direct steering system controls three servo motors which enable movement in the three axonal directions. A sensor at the bottom of the relatoscope automatically adjusts the eye level to the correct height for eventual level differences in the model. Due to economic reasons, the simulator is to date only equipped with a black- and-white video system. Pictures in color have to be taken on 8 or 16 mm color film. The film camera is mounted on line with the video system, in front of the television camera.

Description of previous endoscopical work: (1) Comparisons and evaluation of different presentation techniques. (2) Presentation and evaluation of different architectural projects. (3) Evaluation of simulated large-scale art works in existing environments. (4) Use as pedagogic instrument in architectural education.

Description of special working techniques: (1) Models need only to be made in stage-set form, depicting just the parts of the planned environment required for the picture. (2) Copies of drawings or still pictures of existing facades may be used to simplify model building. (3) Scales of 1:50 or 1:100 are preferable in order to facilitate the proper rendering of detail in the model. (4) The use of materials that ensure a correct rendering of colors, textures and reflections, is important.


SWITZERLAND

SCANNING SKY SIMULATOR (ARTIFICIEL)

Contact person: Michel Laurent

Mailing and visiting address: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire dÕEnergie Solaire (LESO-PB), Case Postale 95, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

Telephone: +41-21-6934545 Telefax: +41-21-6932722 eMail: ...

Description of the equipment: A sixth of the sky vault is constructed using only 25 lighting fixtures; the reconstitution of the whole sky is obtained with six rotations of the model on an automatic support. The final view is obtained via a superposition of six video images; the correct daylight factors are obtained by adding six light components.

Description of previous endoscopical work: A better use of daylight within buildings offers real opportunities to achieve a part of the electricity savings potential. Design tools, however, are necessary to reach this goal in practice. A scanning sky simulator was built to allow the study of the contribution of diffuse daylight to the lighting of buildings. This installation completes a sun simulator (Heliodon) which can be used to simulate the contribution of direct sunlight.

Description of special working techniques: Modelling of the sky with 145 lighting zones (according to CIE standards) using dimmable HF controlled ballast and fluorescent sources.

Remarks: The diffuse daylight simulator (scanning artificial sky), completing the direct sunlight simulator (Heliodon), is an appropriate and efficient tool to carry out: (1) systematic studies of architectural building models (typology) (2) daylight studies within the framework of architectural projects (3) validation of computer daylight model (4) development of new daylight systems (prismatic glass f.i.)


USA

ENVIRONMENTAL SIMULATION LABORATORY

Contact person: Prof. Peter Bosselmann

Mailing and visiting address: University of California at Berkeley, College of Environmental Design, 316 Wurster Hall, Berkeley CA 94720, USA

Telephone: +1-510-642-4874 Telefax: +1-510-643-9576 eMail:

Description of the equipment: (1) Motion control computer robotics system for special effects cinematography, including a periscope optical system for high resolution image recording. (2) Various image processing-computer modeling application programs running on IBM 486, Sun Micro Systems, Silicon Graphics workstations. (3) Video-16mm motion picture post production equipment.

Description of previous endoscopical work: Films and videos produced since 1972 including - "Livable Streets", narrated by Donald Appleyard, 1981 - "Times Square", narrated by Jason Robards, 1985 - "No More Tall Stories", narrated by Paul Newman, 1986 - "Building New York", narrated by Tom Bullock

All films directed by Peter Bosselmann (complete list available).

Description of special working techniques: Increasingly we use computer image processing, three dimensional computer modeling and computer controlled video technology to produce animations. We also combine the video recording with computer generated imagery, frequently the video imagery is recorded on our model stage using the robotics / periscope system.

Remarks: In 1992 we designed and built a new laboratory for the New School for Social Research in New York City. The equipment is identical to the Berkeley Lab.


USA

ENVIRONMENTAL SIMULATION CENTER

Contact person: Director Michael Kwartler

Mailing and visiting address: New School for Social Research, Graduate School of Management and Urban Policy, 65 Fifth Avenue - Ground Floor, New York, New York 10003

Telephone: ++1-212-229-5408 Telefax: ++1-212-229-5751 eMail: ...

Description of the equipment:

a.) Physical model simulator with optical probe and digital video camera, and moving gantry powered by a PC based LYNX Robotics System with servo motors.

b.) Audio visual equipment: professional VHS deck (Panasonic) and 3/4" Beta SP deck (Sony), wave form monitor, etc.

c.) Network of IBM RS/6000 and power RS/6000Õs using AES, Oracle Data-Base Management software for the CenterÕs 3-D Geographic Information System, and BechtelÕs Walk-through software.

d.) Pentium PC using 3-D Studio and Animator-Pro software.

Description of previous endoscopical work: The Center has been involved in controversial land-use and urban design issues primarily in the New York Metropolitan Area.

Description of special working techniques: A broad range of modelling and simulation techniques including physical model walk-throughs 3-D computer modelling (animation); digital photo imaging combining photographs and 3-D computer models; digital video imaging and 3-D computer models and animations, a Lego-like 3-D computer kit-of-parts for hands-on interactive community design workshops.

Remarks: The Center was established in the public interest in 1990 by a consortium of private foundations. In addition to its conflict resolution/consensus building work through the use of a concrete visual language and supporting data, it is also in the process of building a 3-D vector-based model of New York City. Notes .