Model Photography with Simple Light Systems and Exact Light Control for Repeated Photo Sessions

lkka Alavalkama (Tampere University of Technology, Finland)

Laboratory for Visual Simulation in Tampere University of Technology (TUT) is taking care of all technical methods of architectural visualization. In the last years, there has been a project for total control of picture material for publication purposes. A mixture of different visual information materials can only be handled with a set of suitable processing units, computer programs and standardized resp. proven methods. A common problem with all color photographic materials is the variation of grayscale, color balance and other technical properties. For keeping the technical part of picture processing at a minimum, a standardized photographic process is necessary. Most common method in model photography is the use of standard studio lighting. The normal light setup with artificial light does not resemble the real outdoor light. The light system described in this contribution has a "sun" and a "sky" in a really simple form. This is a low-cost studio approach to model photography and not comparable with a full-scale studio equipment. Finally, some numeric data of TUT system will be presented.


Management of Sequential Space Experiences

Arne Branzell (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden)

In this paper a way of combining endoscopy with architectural notations will be presented. Endoscopy is regarded as a tool to visualize sequences from a model in order to demonstrate how the environment will look like from the pedestrian's or driver's view. But while using it, its limitations must be considered. The model is mostly too small to present distant landmarks, districts, nodes and edges of importance. And most important, experience of space is not only visual. It is a complex process where many aspects must be taken into consideration. These aspects can be presented with architectural notations on physical drawings of the situation. The resulting "storyboard" is most useful in analyzing the situation and making better solutions possible.


Dynamic Perspective: The Media Research Programme

Jack Breen (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

This paper focuses on the Research Programme of the Media Sector at the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology. The media research objectives for the coming years have been brought together with an overall project: "Dynamic Perspective". The "dynamic" quality may be interpreted both as movement (visual displacement and registration) and as change (the effects of different options).

The four projects which together make up this research programme deal with perception (understanding) and conception (designing and imaging) of urban space: "the architecture of the city". Specific aspects are the effects of primary and secondary spatial boundaries and the systematic structuring of simulation of visual information. The programme will further concentrate on the development and implementation of relevant techniques (besides "traditional" ones such as the drawing and the architectural model, on multimedia techniques such as endoscopy, computer visualization and development of virtual reality systems), both in education and in design practice.

By means of analysis, the creation of visual models of choice and the setting up of experiments, the programme aims at the furthering of theoretical knowledge and at acquiring better insights into the effects of design decisions at an urban level, both for designers and for other participants in the design process. Further development of existing laboratory facilities towards a comprehensive Design Simulation Laboratory is an important aspect of the programme.

Within the media research process the Aspern location master plan has been considered as a case study, the findings of which will be presented separately in the workshop sessions.


A Student's Project: Choices in Media for Communication and Presentation

Jan van der Does (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

The Delft Faculty of Architecture is currently working with a new educational method called "Problem Based Learning". After teaching basic principles in free-hand drawing and theory of form in the new block system, the sector Media takes also part in the third and fourth year, mostly in the design disciplines. Communication and presentation techniques, so important for the future, that architects and townplanners were organized for further discussions in close cooperation between the three sections of the Media sector. It resulted in the creation of a media module.

Finally a short video production about the Faculty of Architecture resp. the sector Media at Delft University of Technology will be presented.


The Role of Spatial Experience Anticipation in Architectural Education and Urban Design

Peter Kardos (Slovak Technical University, Slovakia)

Space and its matter substance are the main subjects of urban design, in which an architect, by setting in order the functional-operating relationships and the matter-dimensional manifestations of the formed structure, operates with the aim to achieve general harmony, functional and expressive complexity. Demanding a process, which coordinates relationships in all space dimensions, requires flexible openness of the work documentation during the conception period. Experience proved that such requirements are satisfactorily accomplished by the method of space-modeling, where the creative process happens on the working model.

The reality, though diminished in a simplified form, is in advance, i.e. in an anticipated way. By adapted periscope the endoscopic method develops the method of spatial modeling in new media dimension and enriches it towards creativeness by enabling the simulated space to be percepted on a traditional artificial model in natural horizon of a man. To secure the anticipation by visual simulation of spatial experience on the monitor in a trustworthy manner with respect to real reality, according to relevant aspects of the conception, the visual simulation must respect the rules of sensory perception of a man in real environment. From the procedural point of view of perception the most significant fact for the psyche is the sequence dynamics of the subject and the movement of the perceiver in space. This means that in the mind of the perceiver the most emotionally reflected is the dynamic spatial experience.

Despite the known disadvantages and technical circumstances of model building the method of spatial endoscopy proved itself in didactics, mainly in the approval phase of the aims of urbanistic composition and shaping of an urban space, especially because it enables to carry out by interactive means the sequence research and evaluation of the simulated space on the working model, directly in the studio or in laboratory conditions with relatively low expenses, and with the possibility of immediate correction and subsequent evaluation of the effect. Similarly, its audiovisually elaborated media outputs may simultaneously complete the identical model presentation within evaluating and approving continuations in professional gremiums or in making the results of urban and architectonic solutions popular in the layman public. According to an informal public opinion research on the effect of both CAD and endoscopy simulations, the later one is more popular. Is is, however, a matter of subjective evaluation and experience or a matter of commercial application.


Simulation - How Does it Shape the Message?

Alexander G. Keul (Salzburg University, Austria)
Bob Martens (Vienna University of Technology, Austria)

Architectural simulation techniques - CAD, video montage, endoscopy, full-scale or smaller models, stereoscopy, holography etc. - are common visualizations in planning. A subjective theory of planners says "experts are able to distinguish between 'pure design' in their heads and visualized design details and contexts like color, texture, material, brightness, eye level or perspective." If this is right, simulation details should be compensated mentally by trained people, but act as distractors to the lay mind.

Environmental psychologists specializing in architectural psychology offer "user needs' assessments" and "post occupancy evaluations" to facilitate communication between users and experts. To compare the efficiency of building descriptions, building walkthroughs, regular plans, simulation, and direct, long-time exposition, evaluation has to be evaluated.

Computer visualizations and virtual realities grow more important, but studies on the effects of simulation techniques upon experts and users are rare. As a contribution to the field of architectural simulation, an expert - user comparison of CAD versus endoscopy/model simulations of a Vienna city project was realized in 1995. The Department for Spatial Simulation at the Vienna University of Technology provided diaslides of the planned city development at Aspern showing a) CAD and b) endoscopy photos of small-scale polystyrol models. In an experimental design, they were presented uncommented as images of "PROJECT A" versus "PROJECT B" to student groups of architects and non-architects at Vienna and Salzburg (n= 95) and assessed by semantic differentials. Two contradictory hypotheses were tested: 1. The "selective framing hypothesis" (SFH) as the subjective theory of planners, postulating different judgement effects (measured by item means of the semantic differential) through selective attention of the planners versus material- and context-bound perception of the untrained users. 2. The "general framing hypothesis" (GFH) postulates typical framing and distraction effects of all simulation techniques affecting experts as well as non-experts.

The experiment showed that -counter-intuitive to expert opinions- framing and distraction were prominent both for experts and lay people (= GFH). A position effect (assessment interaction of CAD and endoscopy) was present with experts and non-experts, too. With empirical evidence for "the medium is the message", a more cautious attitude has to be adopted towards simulation products as powerful framing (i.e. perception- and opinion-shaping) devices.


Beyond the Adversial: Conflict Resolution, Simulation and Community Design

Michael Kwartler (New School for Social Research, USA)

Fundamentally, the design of communities in the United States is grounded in the Constitution's evolving definition of property and the rights and obligations attendant to the ownership and use of real property. The rearticulation of Jefferson's dictum in the Declaration of Independence; that individuals have certain inalienable rights, among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; to the Constitution's "life, liberty and property" represents a pragmatic understanding of the relationship between property and the actualization of the individual in society. In terms of community design, this means extensive public involvement and participation in not only the formulation of rules and regulations but of individual projects as well.

Since the 1960's as planning and community design decision making has become increasingly contentious, the American legal system's adversial approach to conflict resolution has become the dominant model for public decision making. The legal system's adversial approach to adjudication is essentially a zero-sum game of winners and losers, and as most land-use lawyers will agree, is not a good model for the design of cities. While the adversial approach does not resolve disputes it rarely creates a positive and constructive consensus for change. Because physical planning and community design issues are not only value based, community design through consensus building has emerged as a new paradigm for physical planning and design.

The Environmental Simulation Center employs a broad range of complementary simulation and visualization techniques including 3-D vector based computer models, endoscopy, and verifiable digital photomontages to provide objective and verifiable information for projects and regulations under study.

In this context, a number of recent projects will be discussed which have explored the use of various simulation and visualization techniques in community design. Among them are projects involved with changes in the City's Zoning Regulations, the community design of a major public open space in one of the region's mid-size cities, and the design of a new village center for a suburban community, with the last project employing the Center's userfriendly and interactive 3-D computer kit of parts. The kit - a kind of computer "pattern book" is comprised of site planning, urban and landscape design and architectural conventions - is part of the Center's continuing effort to support a consensus based, rather than adversial based, public planning and design process.


Master Plan for "Altes-Flugfeld" Aspern - Vienna

Rüdiger Lainer (Architekturbüro Lainer, Austria)

A complex urban-design concept acting as the starting point for experience with various perceptive and interpretative approaches is to be developed in the course of the workshop "The (In-) Visible Cityî. The master project for the "Alte Flugfeld" (Old airfield) in Aspern (Vienna) lends itself extremely well to this purpose being - at first sight - an irregular urban development area for 20.000 people hardly to be matched by any other international project. The area Stadlau/Aspern/Eszling/Hirschfeld/Hausfeld/Altes Flugfeld was declared an urban development area according to the guidelines concerning urban development in Vienna of 1991. Reasons for the development of this area are its size and its strategically important location aiming at continuation on the other side of the Danube as well as the cross-linking of the city with this region and an expandable traffic infrastructure . This area represents an extremely valuable potential regarding housing projects and location of industrial facilities and services as well as of development of new urban quarters. What counts is the enhancement of qualities existing within the area while maintaining natural spaces and settlement structures. The project "Altes Flugfeld" - prelude and field office for a major development area - represents a viable and "complete" city quarter as such.


Optimal Choice of the Equipment Depending on the Requirements of Educational Projecting

Michael Matalasov (Moscow Institute of Architecture, Russia)

The means of architectural endoscopy play an important role in teaching architects, making it possible to form effectively spatial perception. However, the high price of the up-to-date equipment requires its optimal implementation. On the early stages of training architectural students it is reasonable to use sufficiently simple devices: telemaketoscope connected with a 386DX-computer and printer to get static video series. More complicated educational projects demand studying the object in movement, so a VHS or S-VHS VCR is added to the system. And at last one most employ complex system, comprising minimum 486DX-computer, videostudio and special modernized camcorder is intended for real architectural projects. Such systems make it possible to combine the projected object with the real environment, executing the object itself either in the form of a computer 3D-model or in the form of scale model. The examples of training and real works, mentioned in the paper, illustrate the efficiency of employing proposed system in various fields of architectural designing.


Street-scape and Way-finding Performance

Ryuzo Ohno (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan)

In this study, it was hypothesized that peopleÃs performance of way-finding depends on the characteristics of street-scapes, i.e., the more visual information exists the easier people find their own ways. This relationship was investigated by an experiment using an environmental simulator and analysis of the subject's behavioral data recorded by the simulation system. Three scale models (1/150) of identical maze patterns (300m x 300m) which have different street-scapes were created and set in the simulator, in which an endoscope connected to CCD color TV camera controlled by a system operated by a personal computer. Three types of streets are: (1) having no characteristics with monotonous surface, (2) having characteristics on each corner with different buildings, (3) having characteristics along the streets with trees, columns or fences. The simulator allows a subject to move through the scale models and looking around, using a "joy-stick" for viewing the scene as projected on 100-inch CCTV screen. The control system of the simulator records all signals generated by the "joy-stick" every 0.01 second, and thus exact position within the model space and the viewing direction at given moment can be stored in the computer memory, which can be used to analyze the subjectÃs behavior. The task of a subject was to find the way which was previously shown by the screen. Three male and three female subjects for each of three street types, for a total of eighteen subjects participated in the experiment. An analysis of the trace of movements and viewing directions generally supported the hypothesis that the street with visual characteristics were easier to memorize the route although there was a large difference in performance among subjects. It was also noted that there were three different strategies of way-finding according to the subject: one group of subjects seemed to rely on well structured knowledge of the route, i.e., the cognitive map, and the other group seemed to rely on incoming visual information of the changing scenes, and the last group seemed to find the way using both the cognitive map and visual information depending on the situations.


Comparison of CAD and Model-with-Endoscope as Media for Designing in and through

Petri Siitonen (Helsinki University of Technology, Finland)
Ranulph Glanville (University of Portsmouth, UK)

A comparative project was run in Tampere, in which student groups used both CAD modeling (Virtus WalkThrough) and endoscopic navigation in a physical model to design a series of insertions in a landscape (Haemeenpuisto) in Tampere. These insertions are intended to interprete the space as a space to be moved through. An account of the experiment will be given, together with an evaluation of the relative benefits of each medium, and the ways in which the media could be used, through examination, to help generate a wider range of possible proposed interventions. The past tense in this account is a subterfuge for the present and the future.


Implementation of Endoscopic Model Simulation in Teaching - Downtown-Essen

Wolfgang Thomas (University of Essen, Germany)

Essen with its present population of 630.000 is amongst the six largest cities of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its international significance as former industrial capital of Central Europe stems from its strategically unique location in the center of the largest economic conurbation within Continental Europe. Comparable to the transition during the industrialization period the Ruhr-metropolis, once having been a production site, has become a service-industry site. At present Essen is to be regarded as one of the major trade emporiums in the center of Europe: fair city, headquarters of major international industry- and trade corporations, principal energy center, shopping- and university city. In line with these favorable prerequisites the main traffic corridors, - on the rail, road, water and in the air - of Conti-nental Europe also meet in and around Essen. And the location of the Essen Central Train Station at the geographic center of the Ruhr-agglomeration proves also ideal

Its potential regarding urban functionality, however, shows a drastic incongruity as far as aesthetic-atmospheric reality is concerned. Instead of representing a meeting point and the focus for the integration of city quarters in terms of visitors communication it has become cut off from is surroundings in the south and north by large traffic routes. Down-town Essen has become unattractive for the public and thus is avoided rather than visited.

An improvement of the Essen down-town area will only be effective if this incongruity is done away with. Therefore, the five-storey system train station is to be connected to the down-town and southern part of Essen on the three major levels level with the vicinity in such a manner that the requirements of its service-function as to representing a point of attraction, animating center and efficient connector are met. Our conception is aimed at turning the Central Train Station into an interesting welcoming- and farewell-place enticing dwelling and appealing business activities: the gateway of Essen and into the world.


User's View and Utilization Process in Urban Space

Manfred Walz (Fachhochschule Dortmund, Germany)

How does the user's view get into the endoscope? The endoscopical picture makes no difference between centralized perspective parts and the perception in the borderzones of the eyes' view. The utilization of endoscopical pictures shows that we learned this way of viewing in renaissance. The user's view is obtained by everyday experiences:

In this contribution these aspects are demonstrated in examples of simulating the utilization process in urban space. According to our (three year-short) experience with endoscopical simulation there are at least three different manors of view, which we are trying to make visible with the available hardware: a.) architect's or planner's view, b.) owner's view and c.) user's view.