Technical Aspects of the Laboratory for Visual Simulation at Tampere University of Technology 

Ilkka Alavalkama (Tampere University of Technology, Finland)

The simulator was built very early compared with the development of video systems. A contract for planning the simulator electronics, mechanics and camera systems was made in january 1978. Ease of control and maintenance were asked beside of 'human movement inside colored small-scale architectural models'. From the very beginning, all components of the system were carefully tested and chosen from various alternatives. Financial resources were quite limited, which lead to a long building process and to self-planned and produced mechanical and electronical elements. Mechanics and electronic control were totally planned and built at Tampere University of Technology, including about 1000 kg:s of steel and aluminium parts and a microcomputer with stepping motor controls and power units. For safe remote control movement and optimum endoscope-to-camera fitting a new flexible relay optic adapter was developed. The first recording unit was a 1:st-generation U-Matic, which was luckily chosen instead of a Philips VCR. From the beginning a 60'-projection-television was chosen to be the minimum-distortion presentation technique for wide-angle architectural photography. The simulator is still after 15 years using the same steel frame. Some modifications have been made to the drive mechanics and to the computer program. The video camera has been changed four times, always to a smaller target size (1' - 2/3' - 1/2') and used with endoscopes from three different manufacturers. The video recording format has been changed to S-VHS; a 486DX-computer is used for frame grabbing and image processing. The basic concept of simulator construction and drive method has been kept the same throughout the years. Future developments of the mechanical concept are going to be visible in the simulator at Helsinki University of Technology later this year.

An Introduction to the Construction and Effective Use of Endoscopes for the Building Industry

Richard Armstrong (Olympus Industrial, United Kingdom)

Olympus Optical Co., of Tokyo was formed in 1919. Currently, the main product range is split into cameras, microscopes, and medical and industrial endoscopes. Perhaps, surprisingly, the endoscope division is the largest part of the business, and growth is expected to continue rapidly as hospitals and industry see the benefits of saved time and money, provided by using endoscopes. Within the wide field of the 'building industry' Olympus has a wide range of equipment, purposefully designed to provide the best views of the applications under view. One such tool is the OES Modelscope launched in 1990 to replace the original MK1 Modelscope. The new modelscope uses the latest technology lenses, which significantly improve optical performance. Now architects, town planners, film producers etc. are getting results which were unobtainable before. Optical designers had to consider many factors when deciding on the optical characteristics of the lens system to be used inside the modelscope. These included colour, barrel distortion, field flatness, brightness, image size, focussing and ocular magnification. One lens, called an aspheric 'bottle' lens is used in the tip of the modelscope. This provides a wide field of view of 80°, but introduces no optical distortion or image curvature. Accessories for the scope were designed to allow use with still and video cameras and a height adjuster will provide realistic perspective views on models down to 1/500 scale. Evidence of the views provided can be seen in photographs and videos - some of which make their way onto TV through advertisements, where special effects are required. Other special kits have been made for other applications within the building industry. Using a cold light source for illumination and with a rigid borescope or flexible fiberscope, internal views can be seen with minimal disruption. Such applications include air conditioning ducts, ancient monuments, bridge bearings, cavity walls, floor voids, roads, sewers and water mains. Concealed voids may still need to be opened up, especially if remedial works are planned. But pre-planning can be effectively guided and work minimised by the use of endoscopes. From initial ideas of new buildings to renovation of old, endoscopes are essential aids.

Episode as a Unit of Analysis of Movement

Seppo Aura (Tampere University of Technology, Finland)

Movement has long been recognized as a factor in environmental planning in many ways. For example, in the traditional Japanese promenade garden the importance of movement has always been appreciated. The promenader gains an intense experience of the succession, variation and rhythm of the surrounding scene. One could maintain that at the beginning of this century many artists and architects were more aware of this dynamic dimension than others before or after them. We need only recall the cubists, the ideas of L. Moholy-Nagy about vision in motion and the architecture of Le Corbusier and F.L. Wright. Later in the 1960's and 1970's this dynamic dimension of time and motion was, however, neglected by the exponents of technical-economic values resulting in monotonous built environments. Today such neglect presents architecture with the challenge of re- evaluating the importance of vision in motion or serial visions. And now, partly because of highly sophisticated technical equipment like the endoscope and the environmental simulator, we also have better technical opportunities than ever to deal with this dimension.
In addition to technical equipment, however, we also need new basic concepts and guiding theoretical principles by which to analyse the dimension of motion. We must be able to define what kind of dimension we are, in fact, striving for by the use of the endoscope and the simulator. For example, what is common to different interesting sequences of spaces. As an answer one could maintain that most of them can be characterized as solid, integrated 'episodes of movement'. They have their beginning, their internal development, and their end. Thus, if we are striving for interesting sequences of spaces, the basic unit of planning cannot simply be separate space as such. Instead the architect has to project himself into the episode of movement as a whole and to the psychological experience of it. He has to recognize the episode in holistic terms with its beginning, internal tensions, temporal rhythms and its end. As a basic unit the episode of movement should be seen as a single dynamic entity. The environmental simulator, in turn, is one of the best equipment to analyse and test the architectural elements by which this dynamic entity can be achieved.

The History and Present State of the Visual Simulation Laboratory at Berkeley 

Peter Bosselmann (University of California at Berkeley, USA)

This paper is about the use of visual simulation by urban designers and planners. We explore the history of simulation from its origins; explain guidelines for its application in urban design and planning projects; and discuss how simulation techniques might be integrated into design instruction and practice. An important goal of the work at Berkeley has been to produce simulations that can be used as valid design and decision- making tools. A person watching a simulation should reliably report the same responses as he or she would after visiting the real world. Research in response equivalence became the subject of an extensive validation project carried out at Berkeley in the early 1970ís. Upon validation simulations were prepared for a wide range of clients, including public agencies, community advocacy groups and project developers. It became important to protect the credibility of the work. Four principles have guided us. Simulations, first of all, have to be representative of an environment and of the changes proposed. Simulations have to be accurate and open to accuracy tests. The work has to be done neutrally and the products should not be used selectively by the users of simulations. Therefore, simulation work should be in the public domain. Current interest in visual simulation is fueled by advances in computer technology. Many aspects of our work have been readily transferred to computer applications including computer modelling, texture mapping, image processing and animation. Credibility of visual simulation has remained the focus of our work.

Presentation of Studiowork for Visualization and Communication

Arne Branzell (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden)

The Studio for Visualization and Communications at the Architectural School in Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg has been working since 1975 on 600 m2 of work-space. Our aim is to train the students and researchers in the use of old and new media. Our special interest has been to develop combinations between traditional tools and new media. Different ways of simulating the built-future have been investigated. Furthermore the complex of visualization in an early stage of the design process, creativity and simulation techniques are to be duly accounted for.

Visualizing by Means of Endoscope, Computer and Hand-drawn Techniques

Jan van der Does (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

In 1990 an illustrated research report was published under the title ëOverdracht en Simulatie' (Information and Simulation). The report gives a description of a pilot study carried out by a team of constructional engineers to assess and evaluate various simulation techniques used in architecture. A video-endoscope recording of a detailed scale model is just as able to convey factual information and to elicit emotional response as videotapes of the real situation. The technical factors; motion, photographic rendering, and perspective, proved to have hardly any influence on emotional response, but using realistic colors and providing ample details turned out to play a very important role. In communicating factual information, motion and detail were found to be important factors. Videotape recordings of a scale model in which the colors and further details are correct is a more effective method of giving information than other methods tested, such as drawings and sets of slides made from stills. As far as emotional response is concerned, colored and detailed floor plans of good quality, cross sections, and elevations are hardly inferior to detailed endoscope recordings and to perspective drawings. In considering these results in relation to the costs of the various techniques, it seems advisable to determine the aim of the presentation before choosing a particular presentation technique.
By now, a follow-up study, carried out by practically the same team, focuses on assessing and evaluating computer simulation. Furthermore, a comparison with the techniques tested in the first study will be made. The research problem is formulated as follows: 'How do computer renderings of projected housing complexes compare with video-endoscope recordings of a detailed scale model and with colored perspective drawings of these same complexes?' Again, we are interested in emotional and factual effectiveness, taking into consideration the real situation, the size of the project and the cost.
In the early part of 1992 three specialists were asked to make, independently from one another, three simulations on the basis of same information provided by blueprints of an architect's final design, respectively by means of; computer rendering; a detailed scale model (scale 1:200); and perspective drawings in color. In that same period, the two projected housing complexes located in Amsterdam were under construction. When the complexes and the simulations were completed, a questionnaire survey was conducted using pictures of the real situation of the completed complex as reference material.

Integrated Visualization

Pekka Ervamaa (Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland)

Apart from video-endoscopical recordings and -photography our system was developed to produce different kinds of integrated visual presentations, based on video and computer technology. With video- endoscopy it is possible to combine live video, slide or computer graphics in the background. Because the architectural process usually produces manual and CAD-drawings, we consider the ability to use all this material as elements of visualization as important. Video or still image background can be combined to drawings, CAD paperprints and video frames (grabbed from computer) or to CAD-animation. An easy method to demonstrate the situation before/after and use visual effects demonstrating the changes is to use computer animation software like MacroMind Director. Digital manipulation of the single frames can also be used for example when placing a new building into its surroundings or demonstrating the changes of façade.
Why integrated methods? As mentioned above, practical needs of the clients (architects, builders, inhabitants) represent one reason for combining different visual materials. A theoretical basis of visualization also supports integrated solutions. Many-sidedness - use of several visual manners - is an important method to achieve (suggestive) realism, analytical presentation and reliability. The needs of different viewers may demand flexible means of visualization. We try to make use of different technical possibilities and technical developments, such as interactive multimedia, videodisk, CD-Rom, etc. To achieve all this demands a lot of time and personal motivation.

Application of Endoscopy in Road-Design.

Jan B. Hartman (Grontmij Consulting Engineers, The Netherlands)

Within the Dutch Ministry of Transport a special Division on Transport and Traffic Research is occupied with all aspects concerning mobility and traffic safety on a national level. Research and advice on the quality of the road-infrastructure is one of the main topics. For road-design a set of very detailed guidelines have been developed. Construction and reconstruction of parts of the highway-network are tested according to these guidelines. In this matter the actual road-user takes a central place. In the designfase of a project on road-infrastructure contributions of a number of experts are taken into account. Expert opinions on elements of the road-design result in a overall-design. The road-scene of the overall- design is tested against visual requirements for safe driving, from a drivers point of view. It is aimed as advising to improvements of the visual quality of the road design. In order to examine whether a road design has the right visual characteristics to meet the expectations of road-users a visualization technique is required. The scale model is one of the techniques still very frequently used for road-scene research purposes. The most frequently used scale is 1:100. Practical limits are 1:50 and 1:500. The Viascoop is a computer controlled road-scene simulator. It is a device which enables traffic-engineers to move a periscope attached to a camera through scale models of road sections and subsequently obtain an image of sequences of road-scenes, as they are intended to be presented to future road-users. Research in this field is now carried out by Grontmij Consulting Engineers, mainly under authority of the Ministry of Transport. The Viascoop was introduced in 1988. Since then a number a road-scene research and visualization activities have been undertaken. The criteria used to examine the quality of road-scenes and aesthetics proved to be very helpful. Specifications of the Viascoop, the visual requirements and actual results of road-scene-research will be illustrated.

A Review of the Experimental Research at the University of Stuttgart

Antero Markelin (University of Stuttgart, Germany)

At the Institute of Urban Planning early experiments in model simulation were made by means of an endoscope. Experiments included the use of a 16 mm film of a 1: 170 scale model of the market place at Karlsruhe, design alternatives for which were produced and shown to the Karlsruhe authorities. In 1975-77, with the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (a German Research Authority), an investigation was carried out into existing endoscopic simulation facilities, such as those in Wageningen, Lund, Berkeley etc. The resulting publication was mainly concerned with technical installations and their applications. However a key question remained: 'Can reality be simulated by means of endoscopy?' In 1979-82, in order to answer that question, the University of Stuttgart carried out the most extensive research of the time, investigating validity of model simulation. Of special importance was the involvement of social scientists and psychologists. The research was concerned with the theory of model simulation, its ways of use and its users, and then the establishment of requirements for effective model simulation. For the main research work with models or simulation films, psychological tests were developed which enabled a tested person to give accurate responses or evidence without getting involved in unfamiliar technical terminology. It was thought that differences in semantics would make the work imprecise or arbitrary. Among the research questions were those to do with the intelligibility of the image, the ability to judge the shown design and the environmental quality, the quality of the script, the importance of the media used (slides, video etc.) and the use of music, etc. A resume of the results and an outlook of the future procedures was made.

A Renaissance of Architectural Endoscopy

Bob Martens (Vienna University of Technology, Austria)

Experience regarding endoscopy had already been acquired in the sixties and seventies at several faculties of architecture. The rare implementation in the field of architecture may be traced back to the rather mediocre picture quality in transmission due to the peripheral equipment. This problem was coped with by means of the CCD-camera technology developed in the eighties, as nowadays video cameras being considerably less light-sensitive and less sensitive to sudden light- fluctuations are available.
As far as students are concerned their acceptance of endoscopy within the framework of their architectural studies largely depends on a comprehensible application thereof meaning nothing more than that no unnecessary barriers are to crop up during implementation in design work. Practically always scale models are made which normally only have to be adapted insignificantly for endoscopic viewing purposes. Following a brief introduction the students are made familiar with the basics and thus are capable of endoscoping by themselves. Complicated models require certain considerations concerning siting and lighting. Further work steps could comprise e.g. the editing of video-material or the reviewing by means of image processing-software.
Endoscopy has been in use at the Department for Spatial Simulation at the Vienna University of Technology ever since 1989. The infrastructure required therefore has continuously been expanded and advanced and presently enables both shots in various video formats and the taking of digitalized still pictures or simple digital sequences, resp. Implementation is not performed isolated, but is principally regarded in connection with other spatial simulation techniques, as e.g. full-scale simulation, holography and stereoscopy.

Technical Conception of Videosystems Laboratory at Moscow Institute of Architecture

Michael Matalasov (Moscow Institute of Architecture, Russia)

Modelling plays an essential role in architect's creative activity, as a model is the first and the only source of three-dimensional information about the object designed. However, the model does not deny or substitute CAD. Reliable visual information obtained from the model is available only with the help of special technical means, supplied with a periscopical device. In the Videosystems Laboratory of Moscow Institute of Architecture both standard medical endoscopes and specially designed ones are used. Together with examining the model from 'street level', it is possible to take (stereo-) pictures, to make video records and to grab frames into the computer for further image processing. Since the Videosystems Laboratory participates in teaching, design and research work, systems differing in degree of difficulty and price have been worked out and are being used. As many students are to make use of them, simple and reliable non-automated systems are preferable. In Russia approx. ten such systems are being used, produced according to recommendation of the Videosystems Laboratory. The Laboratory holds 6 patents of the USSR and Russia for some variants of systems (so called 'telemaketoscopes').

The Role of Endoscopy in Teaching Urban Planning

Jere Maula (Tampere University of Technology, Finland)

The following three steps of endoscopy were used so far as a teaching aid for first- to third-year students. Computer aided modeling in different scales will probably be integrated as far as the next steps are concerned.
First Step (preliminary experiments):
Goal: personal initiation into a mystery; training of students in design routines; developing of a set-up.
Method: from parts to wholeness; from detailed design rules to a general view of urban environment.
Advantage: succesful planning procedure of model reality. Disadvantage: model reality remained as an inherent value.

Second step (intermediate situation):
Goal: special equipment in seminar room.
Method: round table seminars; model as a 'cat' on the table; free lecturing using the model.
Advantage: learning from personal mistakes through a new attempt; learning from mistakes of others. Disadvantage: model reality still remained more as inherent value.

Third Step (Actual situation)
Goal: creative gliding from model scale to full scale reality.
Method: removing from model reality by using plain materials in different scales ('portable personal model workshop' from corrugated cardboard, in Finnish: 'Aalto-pahvi'); spontaneous destruction of models; simultaneous working at real object.
Advantage: easier repeating of model exercises; observable development by many students in creative gliding from model scale to reality.

The Effect of Spatial Structure on Visual Search Behavior

Ryuzo Ohno (Kobe University, Japan)

People's voluntary movement through an environment is essential for their comprehension of three dimensional space. It may be hypothesized that they move and look around in order to pick up wanted information at the time. This study investigated the following more specified hypotheses by an experiment using an environmental simulator and analysis of the subjects' behavioral data recorded by the simulation system: (1) The strategy of visual search behavior (body movement and viewing direction) is influenced by spatial structure (form and organization); (2) The strategy can be explained by amount of incoming visual information from the environment, i.e., people move and look at a certain direction in order to maximize effective information at a given moment and position. If these hypotheses would be confirmed, we could predict people's behavior in an unfamiliar place on the basis of the spatial structure.
Three 1:20 scale models of interior spaces (47m x 40m) of different floor-plan types (cross corridors, plaza with colonnade, connected plazas) were made and set in the simulator, in which a small CCD camera supported by a gantry and controlled by a system operated by a personal computer. This simulator allows a subject to move through the scale models and look around, using a 'joy-stick' for viewing the scene as projected on 100-inch Screen. The control system of the simulator records all signals generated by the 'joy-stick' every 0.01 second, and thus the exact position within the model space and the viewing direction at given moments can be stored in the computer memory, which is then used to analyze the subject's behavior. The task of a subject was to spot a target letter from the letters displayed with equal density on the model's walls and columns. Three plan types, each with four different target and start positions, for a total of twelve settings were tested by each of ten male and twelve female subjects. An analysis of the trace of movements and viewing directions revealed that there were at least three different strategies of search behavior, and their occurrence was varied according to the floor-plan types. This tendency of strategy was examined by calculating the amount of visual information which was tentatively defined by the wall length where recognizable letters initially appeared in the visual field every 0.1 second. Some of the relationship of strategy to spatial structure could be explained by this measure, although more systematic experiments are necessary for a clearer definition of the amount of visual information related to search behavior. This study suggests a new research technology in which an environmental simulator is used not only for predicting behavior in a new space-design, but also for analyzing human behavior in simulated space.

Applications of the Episode-theory in Architectural Design

Henri Palmqvist (Tampere University of Technology, Finland)

By means of architectural design we create spaces, which a designer is supposed to put into a row. A series of spaces result from these successive spaces. So that you can experience the successive spaces as a row of spaces you have to walk though them. Motion has a very important function in experiencing. In these series of spaces we recognize different kinds of experiences. By means of the visual experience we obtain an image how the object we just perceived looked like. Most often visual experiences are not very easily undestood as an object, so architecturally examining the experience is very difficult. In teaching work at the Department of Architecture in Tampere we aim at finding the elements, taking into consideration that we have possibilities to design visual attractions. We have created signals which help the students in their design work. The idea is to create some kind of manuscript, an architectural map of visual experiences. In this map the designer points out the matters that influence visual experience in his design. Among these signals are: important views, places for orientation, periods (episodes), importance of period, the shape of terrain and so on. With the help of an environmental simulator we can identify our design from the model, analyse the manuscript and make the changes needed. To understand successive spaces in movement is sometimes difficult to understand even for the designer. Working methods using the simulator have been integrated in the framework of architectural teaching clearly demonstrating this is an excellent mean to understand movement in architecture.

Visualizing with Digital Tools at the Department of Architecture

Hannu Penttilae (Tampere University of Technology, Finland)

This approach sees traditional video endoscopy and computer-based modeling techniques as two methods the combination of which offers advantages for both. Endoscopy and CAD are neither alternative nor rival techniques. Cheap digital visualization is available within the context of CAD. High-end visualization has been developed by commercial advertising and the entertainment industry.
A CAD-model of the Department of Architecture was created mainly for departmentís drawing maintenance, but it also seemed to serve well in demonstrating CADís possibilities. Creating and maintaining a single CAD- model but outputting several documents there from, is evident and efficient means. An advantage in computer-aided visualization, is the possibility of combining existing and traditional planning material such as photographs, maps and hand drawings with CAD-models. It is also easy to demonstrate several kinds of environmental changes, alternatives, destruction and movement in space. CAD requires special expert skills and equipment, hence it is still today a highly techno-intensive tool. Since CAD-modeling requires a lot of manual work, it is rather expensive to model urban environment in detail. It is also clumsy to model 'natural objects', such as terrain and vegetation. Computer is often understood to be equivalent to CAD, but it is not; computer-aided technology offers a wider spectrum of tools for visualizing purposes. CAD is understood just as a drawing tool, but it is not; it offers a variety of tools for drawing, spatial manipulation and animation. Mental barriers among architectural teachers are strong because they prefer traditional methods as they are more familiar with using them. Technical barriers donít exist any more, the only ones that exist are in our mind.

Model Simulation of Artificial Light in Urban Design

Arpad Pfeilsticker (University of Stuttgart, Germany)
Still it is extraordinarily difficult and takes great efforts to visualize lighting concepts. Large scales in modelling and the complicated miniaturization of lights limit the size of projects. At the simulation laboratory of the Institute of Urban Planning at the Stuttgart University we are searching for methods to be used as planning tools for architects and urban planners. Since 1989 we concentrate on the simulation of artificial light in urban space. Taking photographs through an endoscope requires a high intensity of light to keep exposure times within a reasonable limit. The simulation of artificial light should visualize the light of model lamps. Therefore the model cannot be lighted with the usual daylight lamps. Differences in illuminance around the factor 10000 (compared to daylight exposures) are the consequence; exposure time rises up to 1 1/2 hours. Reproducible photographs can only be taken on the basis of empirically established exposure times. By splitting the existing illuminants into basic intensity many different situations can be simulated through the combination of these illuminants and additional exposure. Furthermore, the total exposure time can be reduced through this measure. For the simulation of artificial light on scale 1:100 resp. 1:87, model railway lamps are best suited as light source. Their high detail rendition in connection with well placed light effects makes them look very realistic. For light concepts on scale 1:200 the placement and the spatial effect are more important than the design of the lamp. The decisive question for the simulation of artificial light on scale 1:200 is: 'How does the light get into a lamp with a diameter of only 1 to 4 millimeters?' Optical waveguides are not only an excellent medium of transmission, but can also rather easily be formed into various types of lamps. From scale 1:500 on it is no longer possible to mount luminous lighting gear on the model. Therefore we changed to drawing the light distribution on the model with the help of fluorescent colors or to painting small lamp-models with fluorescent colors. The photographs of the model are then taken under ultra-violet radiation.

Future of Endoscopy and Environmental Visuali- zation from a Technical Point of View

Petri Siitonen (Helsinki University of Technology, Finland)
Ilkka Alavalkama (Tampere University of Technology, Finland)

Is there any future for endoscopy in environmental visualization? It is computers that are used to produce all the modern wonders of the world, not gadgets that use lenses, motors and mechanics. Or is it quite so? The presentation takes a critical view at the state of art in computer graphics and endoscopy with regard to environmental visualization. It compares their requirements, use, capabilities and costs with each other and predicts the future possibilities for those two. Computer graphics and CAD is referred from PC's to latest Silicon Graphics Reality Engines with corresponding software products. The endoscopy project at the Helsinki University of Technology is introduced as an example of the latest endoscopy systems. Multimedia technology is finally presented.

Orientation, Identification, Representation Space and Perception in Architecture

Anne Stenros (Helsinki University of Technology, Finland)

Perception is our way to understand reality and to acquire knowledge of it and to be in interaction with the environment. Experiencing architecture is based on perception: the spatial orientation, identification and representation which together make possible our environmental experience. In the perception of space we can separate three levels that appear simultaneously: (1) first, the perception level or the physical reality, the environment that we perceive, (2) second, the memory level or the images and the feelings of the environment through our personal history (i.e. the personal environmental experiences collected into memory) and (3) third, the abstract level, the level of perception representations which on a general level organizes and directs perception, memory and action in the environment. When considering the levels, we can also talk about environmental orientation (the perception of the environment), environmental identification (a sense of place) and environmental representation (the figuring of the environment).
The spatial experience is based on perception, the experience of place is brought forth by images; thus the experience of space is the outer part and the experience of place is the inner part of the same perception of environment. Structurally, a place and a poem are analogous: both are based on a personal experience, a dialogue between self and the world, and through them it is possible to make a connection to reality as it is and to form an image which is captured by emotion not by thought. The environmental interaction based on the experience of perception forms the model of overall cognitive space perception. Through the three levels of perception, the orientation, the identification and the representation, a perceiver is in continuous interaction with the environment. The information received through the different senses is processed in the parallel system; based on the representations, the perception of the spatial environment is formed, which also includes the consciousness, a sense of place. The perception evokes a response to the environment, a possible reaction or an action based on the information acquired through perception. The three levels of perception: orientation, identification and representation, cannot be distinguished from each other, in other than the conceptual sense; they appear simultaneously in the environmental perception interlocked and connected to each other.

The History of the Laboratory for Visual Simulation and the Research Work in Tampere

Helmer Stenros (Tampere University of Technology, Finland)

Many things result from lucky incidences. When architectural education was started in Tampere in 1969, I had been looking for new ways of teaching from the very beginning in order to renew traditional ways of teaching architecture. The knowledge based on architectural education did not seem to be enough at all when tackling the profound problems of motion in architecture. The simulator is used as a tool during the design phase and not only as a way to analyze completed projects. Although the period of experience and observation with 'Simulator Aided Design' has been only 10 years, a distinct change in the work done by the students and the graduate architects of our school can be seen. Instead of functionally and static-aesthetic orientated architecture, a dynamic-aesthetic based architecture has achieved a foothold.

A better Understanding of the Role of Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture

Philip Thiel (Center for Experiential Notation, USA)

As the most tool-dependant species on our planet, our technology determines our activities and thus defines our existence. Because of this a clear understanding of the ends-means relationship of our tools is of critical social and professional concern.
Endoscopy, or the use of periscopic-like devices to extract human eye- level visual images, static or dynamic, from iconic scale models of proposed environments, is a case in point. Use is appropriate at advanced stages of planning and design, when such experiential simulations are necessary for both professional evaluation and lay approval. But note that the simulation is only a means to an end, and that the fundamental purpose is to evoke a response to a proposal. Simulation and response are opposite sides of the same coin, and the response is the goal.
Any such responses are meaningful only with reference to the ultimate users' experiential preferences, preferably explicitly established as 'performance specifications' before the start of the design process in consultation with a representative sample of these people. This implies the necessity of a means to identify these beneficiaries of our work, and a means to characterize their environmental 'experiential profiles'. It also requires a means for the discursive scripting of their experiential preferences. The development of a design oriented to the achievement of these ends then depends on a similar time-based scoring for the description of sequentially-experienced environmental attributes, hypothesized as related to these responses. Endoscopy then takes its place as the means for a penultimate check on the experiential design- hypotheses, in conjunction with suitable means to record the simulatees' responses in the same format as the original experiential performance specifications, for comparison therewith.

The Application of Endoscopical Techniques within a Town Planning Expert's Evaluation

Wolfgang Thomas (University of Essen, Germany)

Oberhausen (Germany), a town of about 250.000 inhabitants, is situated between Düsseldorf and Essen on the western border of the Ruhr area. At present the city experiences the prospective end of a 30-year-long structural crisis during which it lost approximately 40.000 jobs, as within the next three years the former center of coal and steel is to change into a international center of service industries. The film of the project Oberhausen-'Center' shows, before the background of this recent history, the consequences as regards town planning development and deals above all with the alternations of the urban design in the present 'center'. Its attractiveness is extremely put into question by setting up the before mentioned service industries where the former industrial plants were located. Therefore a roof construction over the central pedestrian shopping street shall provide a competitive point of attraction which is to gain the character of a demanding arcade as a center of communication. The film tries to make the town planning implications transparent. It was, at the same time, an expert's evaluation as regards the extraordinary roof construction by applying endoscopical techniques on the basis of which final project decisions were being made.